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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Bahrain  
Flag of Bahrain
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Bahrain

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Bahrain
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Bahrain's small size and central location among Persian Gulf countries require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign affairs among its larger neighbors. Possessing minimal oil reserves, Bahrain has turned to petroleum processing and refining, and has transformed itself into an international banking center. The new amir is pushing economic and political reforms, and has worked to improve relations with the Shi'a community. In February 2001, Bahraini voters approved a referendum on the National Action Charter - the centerpiece of the amir's political liberalization program.
   Geography    Bahrain
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
26 00 N, 50 33 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Middle East
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 665 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 665 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
161 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
contiguous zone: 24 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 4%
other: 91% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
50 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
periodic droughts; dust storms
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; lack of freshwater resources, groundwater and seawater are the only sources for all water needs
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf, which much of Western world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean
   People    Bahrain
Population:
Definition Field Listing
656,397
note: includes 228,424 non-nationals (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 29.2% (male 97,022; female 94,605)
15-64 years: 67.7% (male 261,919; female 182,727)
65 years and over: 3.1% (male 10,230; female 9,894) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.67% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
19.53 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.95 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.43 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.03 male(s)/female
total population: 1.29 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
19.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 73.47 years
female: 75.96 years (2002 est.)
male: 71.05 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.75 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.15% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Bahraini(s)
adjective: Bahraini
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Bahraini 63%, Asian 19%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Shi'a Muslim 70%, Sunni Muslim 30%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88.5%
male: 91.6%
female: 84.2% (2002 est.)
   Government    Bahrain
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Kingdom of Bahrain
conventional short form: Bahrain
local short form: Al Bahrayn
former: Dilmun
local long form: Mamlakat al Bahrayn
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional hereditary monarchy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Manama
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
12 municipalities (manatiq, singular - mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar Rifa' wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad, Madinat 'Isa, Juzur Hawar, Sitrah
note: all municipalities administered from Manama
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
15 August 1971 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
National Day, 16 December (1971); note - 15 August 1971 is the date of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 is the date of independence from British protection
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
adopted late December 2000; Bahrani voters approved on 13-14 February 2001 a referendum on legislative changes (revised constitution calls for a partially elected legislature, a constitutional monarchy, and an independent judiciary)
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on Islamic law and English common law
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
none
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa Al Khalifa (since 6 March 1999); Heir Apparent Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad (son of the monarch, born 21 October 1969)
head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since NA 1971)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch
elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Assembly was dissolved 26 August 1975 and legislative powers were assumed by the Cabinet; appointed Advisory Council established 16 December 1992; the National Action Charter created a bicameral legislature on 23 December 2000; approved by referendum of 14 February 2001
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
High Civil Appeals Court
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
political parties prohibited but politically oriented nongovernment organizations are allowed
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Shi'a activists fomented unrest sporadically in 1994-97, demanding the return of an elected National Assembly and an end to unemployment; several small, clandestine leftist and Islamic fundamentalist groups are active
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Khalifa bin Ali bin Rashid AL KHALIFA
chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192
consulate(s) general: New York
telephone: [1] (202) 342-0741
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald E. NEUMANN
embassy: Building #979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club), Block 321, Zinj District, Manama
mailing address: American Embassy Manama, PSC 451, FPO AE 09834-5100; international mail: American Embassy, Box 26431, Manama
telephone: [973] 273-300
FAX: [973] 272-594
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
red with a white serrated band (eight white points) on the hoist side
   Economy    Bahrain
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
In Bahrain, petroleum production and refining account for about 60% of export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 30% of GDP. With its highly developed communication and transport facilities, Bahrain is home to numerous multinational firms with business in the Gulf. Bahrain is dependent on Saudi Arabia for oil revenue granted as aid. A large share of exports consists of petroleum products made from refining imported crude. Construction proceeds on several major industrial projects. Unemployment, especially among the young, and the depletion of oil and underground water resources are major long-term economic problems.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $8.4 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
4% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $13,000 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 1%
industry: 35%
services: 64% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
1.5% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
295,000 (1998 est.)
note: 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national (July 1998 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
industry, commerce, and service 79%, government 20%, agriculture 1% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
15% (1998 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $1.8 billion
expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $700 million (2002 est.)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, offshore banking, ship repairing; tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
5.765 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
5,361.45 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$5.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum and petroleum products, aluminum, textiles
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
India 8.4%, US 3.9%, Saudi Arabia 3.4%, Japan 2.8%, South Korea 2.1% (2000)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$4.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
crude oil, machinery, chemicals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Saudi Arabia 28.7%, US 12.5%, UK 6.6%, France 6%, Japan 4% (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$2.8 billion (2000)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$48.4 million (1995)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Bahraini dinar (BHD)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
BHD
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Bahraini dinars per US dollar - 0.3760 (fixed rate pegged to the US dollar)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Bahrain
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
152,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
58,543 (1997)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: modern system
domestic: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile cellular telephones
international: tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar, UAE, and Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (1997)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
338,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
4 (1997)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
275,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.bh
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
1 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
105,000 (2001)
   Transportation    Bahrain
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
3,164 km
paved: 2,433 km
unpaved: 731 km
note: a paved causeway links Bahrain and Saudi Arabia
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
none
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
crude oil 56 km; petroleum products 16 km; natural gas 32 km
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Manama, Mina' Salman, Sitrah
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 270,784 GRT/384,561 DWT
ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 4, container 2, includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Kuwait 1 (2002 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
4 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3
over 3,047 m: 2 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2001)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2001)
   Military    Bahrain
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Bahrain Defense Forces (BDF) comprising Ground Force (includes Air Defense), Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, Police Force, Amiri Guards, National Guard
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
15 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 222,572 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 121,955 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 5,926 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$526.2 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
6.7% (FY01)
   Transnational Issues    Bahrain
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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