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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Botswana  
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Botswana

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Botswana
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name upon independence in 1966. The economy, one of the most robust on the continent, is dominated by diamond mining.
   Geography    Botswana
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southern Africa, north of South Africa
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
22 00 S, 24 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 600,370 sq km
water: 15,000 sq km
land: 585,370 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 4,013 km
border countries: Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe 813 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
semiarid; warm winters and hot summers
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m
highest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 99% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
10 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure visibility
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
overgrazing; desertification; limited fresh water resources
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country
   People    Botswana
Population:
Definition Field Listing
1,591,232
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 40% (male 319,988; female 316,961)
15-64 years: 55.8% (male 428,638; female 458,777)
65 years and over: 4.2% (male 26,965; female 39,903) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.18% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
28.04 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
26.26 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
64.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 35.29 years
female: 35.43 years (2002 est.)
male: 35.15 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.6 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
35.8% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
290,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
24,000 (1999 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including Kgalagadi and white 7%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
indigenous beliefs 85%, Christian 15%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
English (official), Setswana
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 69.8%
male: 80.5%
female: 59.9% (1995 est.)
   Government    Botswana
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
conventional short form: Botswana
former: Bechuanaland
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Gaborone
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
10 districts and four town councils*; Central, Chobe, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, Ngamiland, North-East, Selebi-Pikwe*, South-East, Southern
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
30 September 1966 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day (Botswana Day), 30 September (1966)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
March 1965, effective 30 September 1966
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 16 October 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004); vice president appointed by the president
election results: Festus MOGAE elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 54.3%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Chiefs (a largely advisory 15-member body consisting of the chiefs of the eight principal tribes, four elected subchiefs, and three members selected by the other 12 members) and the National Assembly (44 seats, 40 members are directly elected by popular vote and 4 are appointed by the majority party; members serve five-year terms)
elections: National Assembly elections last held 16 October 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - BDP 54.3%, BNF 24.7%, other 21%; seats by party - BDP 33, BNF 6, other 1
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
High Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrates' Courts (one in each district)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Festus MOGAE]; Botswana National Front or BNF [Otswoletse MOUPO]; Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Otiandisa KOOSQLEDSE]; Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]
note: a number of minor parties joined forces in 1999 to form the BAM but did not capture any parliamentary seats; the BAM parties are: the United Action Party [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO], the Independence Freedom Party or IFP [Motsamai MPHO], and the Botswana Progressive Union [D. K. KWELE]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Kgosi SEEPAPITSO IV
chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164
telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador John E. LANGE
embassy: address NA, Gaborone
mailing address: P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
telephone: [267] 353982
FAX: [267] 312782
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center
   Economy    Botswana
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Botswana has maintained one of the world's highest growth rates since independence in 1966. Through fiscal discipline and sound management, Botswana has transformed itself from one of the poorest countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per capita GDP of $7,800 in 2001. Two major investment services rank Botswana as the best credit risk in Africa. Diamond mining has fueled much of expansion and currently accounts for more than one-third of GDP and for four-fifths of export earnings. Tourism, subsistence farming, and cattle raising are other key sectors. On the downside, the government must deal with high rates of unemployment and poverty. Unemployment officially is 21%, but unofficial estimates place it closer to 40%. HIV/AIDS infection rates are the highest in the world and threaten Botswana's impressive economic gains.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $12.4 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
4.7% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $7,800 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 4%
industry: 44% (including 36% mining)
services: 52% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
47% (2000 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
6.6% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
264,000 formal sector employees (2000)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
40% (official rate is 21%) (2001 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $2.3 billion
expenditures: $2.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY01/02)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash; livestock processing; textiles
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.4% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
500 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
1.451 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
986 million kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
livestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans, sunflowers, groundnuts
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$2.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
diamonds 80%, copper, nickel, soda ash, meat, textiles (2001)
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
EFTA 85%, Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 10%, Zimbabwe 2% (1999)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$2.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
foodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport equipment, textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products, metal and metal products (2000)
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 77%, EFTA 9%, Zimbabwe 4% (1999)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$325 million (2001)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$73 million (1995)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
pula (BWP)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
BWP
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
pulas per US dollar - 6.8353 (January 2002), 5.8412 (2001), 5.1018 (2000), 4.6244 (1999), 4.2259 (1998), 3.6508 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 April - 31 March
   Communications    Botswana
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
150,000 (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
200,000 (2000)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: the system is expanding with the growth of mobile cellular service and participation in regional development
domestic: small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations; mobile cellular service is growing fast
international: two international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 8, FM 13, shortwave 4 (2001)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
252,720 (2000)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2001)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
31,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.bw
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
11 (2001)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
33,000 (2001)
   Transportation    Botswana
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 888 km
narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (2000 est.)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 10,217 km
paved: 5,620 km
unpaved: 4,597 km (1999)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
none
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
none
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
92 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 81
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 56
under 914 m: 22 (2001)
   Military    Botswana
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Botswana Defense Force (including Army and Air Wing), Botswana National Police
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 384,888 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 202,685 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 19,479 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$135 million (FY01/02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
3.5% (FY01/02)
   Transnational Issues    Botswana
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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