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The World Factbook 2002

  Bosnia and Herzegovina  
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  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Bosnia and Herzegovina
Definition Field Listing
Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991, was followed by a declaration of independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties signed a peace agreement that brought to a halt the three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Agreement retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a joint multi-ethnic and democratic government. This national government was charged with conducting foreign, economic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government comprised of two entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments were charged with overseeing internal functions. In 1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission is to deter renewed hostilities. SFOR remains in place at the January 2002 level of approximately 18,000 troops, though further reductions may take place later in the year.
   Geography    Bosnia and Herzegovina
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
44 00 N, 18 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
total: 51,129 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 51,129 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,459 km
border countries: Croatia 932 km, Yugoslavia 527 km
Definition Field Listing
20 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast
Definition Field Listing
mountains and valleys
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Maglic 2,386 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, forests, copper, chromium, lead, zinc, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 3%
other: 87% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
20 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Montenegro), and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an ethnic Serb majority in the east
   People    Bosnia and Herzegovina
Definition Field Listing
note: all data dealing with population are subject to considerable error because of the dislocations caused by military action and ethnic cleansing (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 19.8% (male 403,391; female 382,037)
15-64 years: 70.6% (male 1,432,559; female 1,366,224)
65 years and over: 9.6% (male 161,659; female 218,518) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.76% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
12.76 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
8.1 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
23.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 72.02 years
female: 74.93 years (2002 est.)
male: 69.3 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.71 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.04% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
less than 100 (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Bosnian(s)
adjective: Bosnian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Serb 31%, Bosniak 44%, Croat 17%, Yugoslav 5.5%, other 2.5% (1991)
note: Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam
Definition Field Listing
Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%, other 10%
Definition Field Listing
Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian
Definition Field Listing
definition: NA
total population: NA%
male: NA%
female: NA%
   Government    Bosnia and Herzegovina
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
local long form: none
local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
emerging federal democratic republic
Definition Field Listing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
there are two first-order administrative divisions and one internationally supervised district* - Brcko district (Brcko Distrikt)*, the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska; note - Brcko district is in northeastern Bosnia and is an administrative unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina; it is not part of either Republika Srpska or the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina; the district remains under international supervision
Definition Field Listing
1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia; referendum for independence was completed 1 March 1992; independence was declared 3 March 1992)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
National Day, 25 November (1943)
Definition Field Listing
the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included a new constitution now in force; note - each of the entities also has its own constitution
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system
Definition Field Listing
16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Beriz BELKIC (chairman since 14 February 2002, presidency member since 30 March 2001 - Bosniak); other members of the three-member rotating (every eight months) presidency: Zivko RADISIC (since 13 October 1998 - Serb) and Jozo KRIZANOVIC (since 30 March 2001 - Croat)
elections: the three members of the presidency (one Bosniak, one Croat, one Serb) are elected by popular vote for a four-year term; the member with the most votes becomes the chairman unless he or she was the incumbent chairman at the time of the election, but the chairmanship rotates every eight months; election last held 12-13 September 1998 (next to be held NA October 2002); the chairman of the Council of Ministers is appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the National House of Representatives
head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Dragan MIKEREVIC (since 15 March 2002), position rotates every eight months
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman; approved by the National House of Representatives
election results: percent of vote - Zivko RADISIC with 52% of the Serb vote was elected chairman of the collective presidency for the first eight months; Ante JELAVIC with 52% of the Croat vote followed RADISIC in the rotation; Alija IZETBEGOVIC with 87% of the Bosniak vote won the highest number of votes in the election but was ineligible to serve a second term until RADISIC and JELAVIC had each served a first term as Chairman of the Presidency; IZETBEGOVIC retired from the presidency 14 October 2000 and was replaced first temporarily by Halid GENJAC and subsequently by Beriz BELKIC; Ante JELAVIC was replaced by Jozo KRIZANOVIC in March 2001 when the High Representative barred him from public office
note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Safet HALILOVIC (since 1 January 2002); Vice President Karlo FILIPOVIC (since 1 January 2002); note - president and vice president rotate every year; President of the Republika Srpska: Mirko SAROVIC (since 11 November 2000); Vice President of the Republika Srpska: Dragan CAVIZ (since NA)
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of the National House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats - 14 Serb, 14 Croat, and 14 Bosniak; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members elected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives and the Republika Srpska's National Assembly to serve four-year terms); note - Bosnia's election law specifies four-year terms for the state and first-order administrative division entity legislatures; officials elected in 2000 and previously were elected to two-year terms on the presumption that a permanent law would be in place before 2002
election results: National House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - SDP 22%, SDA 20%, SDS 15%, HDZ-BiH 12%, SBH 12%, PDP 5%, NHI 2%, BPS 2%, DPS 2%, SNS 2% SNSD-DSP 2%, DNZ 2%, SPRS 2%; seats by party/coalition - SDP 9, SDA 8, SDS 6, HDZ-BiH 5, SBH 5, PDP 2, NHI 1, BPS 1, DPS 1, SNS 1, SNSD-DSP 1, DNZ 1, SPRS 1; House of Peoples - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA%; seats by party/coalition - NA
elections: National House of Representatives - elections last held 11 November 2000 (next to be held in NA October 2002); House of Peoples - last constituted after the 11 November 2000 elections (next to be constituted in the fall of 2002)
note: the Bosniak/Croat Federation has a bicameral legislature that consists of a House of Representatives (140 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 11 November 2000 (next to be held NA October 2002); percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party/coalition - SDA 38, SDP 37, HDZ-BiH 25, SBH 21, DNZ 3, NHI 2, BPS 2, DPS 2, BOSS 2, GDS 1, RP 1, HSS 1, LDS 1, Pensioners' Party of FBiH 1, SNSD-DSP 1, HKDU 1, HSP 1; and a House of Peoples (74 seats - 30 Bosniak, 30 Croat, and 14 others); last constituted November 2000; the Republika Srpska has a National Assembly (83 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 11 November 2000 (next to be held in the fall of 2002); percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party/coalition - SDS 31, PDP 11, SNSD 11, SDA 6, DSP 4, SDP 4, SPRS 4, SBH 4, DNS 3, SNS 2, NHI 1, DSRS 1, Pensioners' Party 1; Bosnia's election law specifies four-year terms for the state and first-order administrative division entity legislatures; officials elected in 2000 and prior were elected to two-year terms on the presumption that a permanent law would be in place before 2002
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
BiH Constitutional Court (consists of nine members: four members are selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives, two members by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly, and three non-Bosnian members by the president of the European Court of Human Rights)
note: a new state court, mandated in November 2000, has jurisdiction over cases related to state-level law and appellate jurisdiction over cases initiated in the entities; the entities each have a Supreme Court; each entity also has a number of lower courts; there are 10 cantonal courts in the Federation, plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska has five municipal courts
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes AJANOVIC]; Bosnian Patriotic Party or BPS [Sefer HALILOVIC]; Civic Democratic Party of BiH or GDS [Ibrahim SPAHIC]; Croat Christian Democratic Union or HKDU BiH [Ante PASALIC]; Croatian Democratic Union of BiH or HDZ-BiH [Ante JELAVIC; note - not recognized by the international community]; Croatian Party of Rights of BiH or HSP-BiH [Zdravko HRSTIC]; Croatian Peasants Party of BiH or HSS-BiH [Ilija SIMIC]; Democratic National Alliance or DNS [Dragan KOSTIC]; Democratic Party of Pensioners or DPS [Alojz KNEZOVIC]; Democratic Party of RS or DSRS [Dragomir DUMIC]; Democratic Peoples Union or DNZ [Fikret ABDIC]; Democratic Socialist Party or DSP [Nebojsa RADMANOVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Rasim KADIC]; New Croatian Initiative or NHI [Kresimir ZUBAK]; Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina or SBH [Safet HALILOVIC]; Party of Democratic Action or SDA [Sulejman TIHIC]; Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Mladen IVANIC]; Party of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]; Pensioners' Party of FBiH [Husein VOJNIKOVIC]; Pensioners' Party of SR [Stojan BOGOSAVAC]; People's Party-Working for Progress or NS-RZB [Mladen IVANKOVIC]; Republican Party of BiH or RP [Stjepan KLJUIC]; Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Dragan KALINIC]; Serb National Alliance (Serb People's Alliance) or SNS [Branislav LULIC]; Social Democratic Party of BIH or SDP-BiH [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Socialist Party of Republika Srpska or SPRS [Zivko RADISIC]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
BIS, CE (guest), CEI, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Igor DAVIDOVIC
chancery: 2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 337-1500
consulate(s) general: New York
FAX: [1] (202) 337-1502
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Clifford J. BOND
embassy: Alipasina 43, 71000 Sarajevo
mailing address: use street address
telephone: [387] (33) 445-700
FAX: [387] (33) 659-722
branch office(s): Banja Luka, Mostar
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle
Government - note:
Definition Field Listing
The Dayton Agreement, signed in Paris on 14 December 1995, retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's exterior border and created a joint multi-ethnic and democratic government. This national government - based on proportional representation similar to that which existed in the former socialist regime - is charged with conducting foreign, economic, and fiscal policy. The Dayton Agreement also recognized a second tier of government, comprised of two entities - a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb Republika Srpska (RS) - each presiding over roughly one-half the territory. The Federation and RS governments are charged with overseeing internal functions. The Bosniak/Croat Federation is further divided into 10 cantons. The Dayton Agreement established the Office of the High Representative (OHR) to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. About 250 international and 450 local staff members are employed by the OHR.
   Economy    Bosnia and Herzegovina
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture is almost all in private hands, farms are small and inefficient, and the republic traditionally is a net importer of food. Industry has been greatly overstaffed, one reflection of the socialist economic structure of Yugoslavia. TITO had pushed the development of military industries in the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted a large share of Yugoslavia's defense plants. The bitter interethnic warfare in Bosnia caused production to plummet by 80% from 1990 to 1995, unemployment to soar, and human misery to multiply. With an uneasy peace in place, output recovered in 1996-99 at high percentage rates from a low base; but output growth slowed in 2000 and 2001. GDP remains far below the 1990 level. Economic data are of limited use because, although both entities issue figures, national-level statistics are limited. Moreover, official data do not capture the large share of activity that occurs on the black market. The marka - the national currency introduced in 1998 - is now pegged to the euro, and the Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina has dramatically increased its reserve holdings. Implementation of privatization, however, has been slow, and local entities only reluctantly support national-level institutions. Banking reform accelerated in 2001 as all the communist-era payments bureaus were shut down. The country receives substantial amounts of reconstruction assistance and humanitarian aid from the international community but will have to prepare for an era of declining assistance.
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $7 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
6% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $1,800 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 16%
industry: 28%
services: 56% (1998 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
5% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
1.026 million
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
40% (2001 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $1.9 billion
expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
9% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
2.615 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 37.67%
hydro: 62.33%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
2.577 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
205 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
350 million kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock
Definition Field Listing
$1.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
miscellaneous manufactures, crude materials
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Croatia, Switzerland, Italy, Germany
Definition Field Listing
$3.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and transport equipment, industrial products, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Croatia, Slovenia, Germany, Italy
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$2.8 billion (2001)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$650 million (2001 est.)
Definition Field Listing
marka (BAM)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
marka per US dollar - 2.161 (October 2001), 2.124 (2000), 1.837 (1999), 1.760 (1998), 1.734 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Bosnia and Herzegovina
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
303,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
9,000 (1997)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: telephone and telegraph network needs modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average as contrasted with services in other former Yugoslav republics
domestic: NA
international: no satellite earth stations
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 8, FM 16, shortwave 1 (1998)
Definition Field Listing
940,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
33 (plus 277 repeaters) (September 1995)
Definition Field Listing
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
3 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
3,500 (2000)
   Transportation    Bosnia and Herzegovina
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,021 km (795 km electrified; operating as diesel or steam until grids are repaired)
standard gauge: 1,021 km 1.435-m gauge; note - many segments still need repair and/or reconstruction because of war damage (2000 est.)
Definition Field Listing
total: 21,846 km
paved: 14,020 km
note: road system is in need of maintenance and repair (2001)
unpaved: 7,826 km
Definition Field Listing
NA km; large sections of the Sava blocked by downed bridges, silt, and debris
Definition Field Listing
crude oil 174 km; natural gas 90 km (1992)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, and Brcko (all inland waterway ports on the Sava), Orasje
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
none (2002 est.)
Definition Field Listing
27 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 3 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 19
under 914 m: 11 (2001)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 7
Definition Field Listing
5 (2001)
   Military    Bosnia and Herzegovina
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
VF Army (the air and air defense forces are subordinate commands within the Army), VRS Army (the air and air defense forces are subordinate commands within the Army)
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
19 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,131,537 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 898,117 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 29,757 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
   Transnational Issues    Bosnia and Herzegovina
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Bosnia and Herzegovina and Yugoslavia have delimited about half of their boundary, but several segments, particularly along the meandering Drina River, remain in dispute; discussions continue with Croatia on the disputed boundary in the Una River near Kostajnica, Hrvatska Dubica, and Zeljava; protests Croatian claim to the tip of the Klek Peninsula and several islands near Neum
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
minor transit point for marijuana and opiate trafficking routes to Western Europe

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

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