Top banner
The World Factbook 2002

         
  Brunei  
Flag of Brunei
Click to enlarge
Categories Banner
  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Brunei

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Brunei
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The Sultanate of Brunei's heyday occurred between the 15th and 17th centuries, when its control extended over coastal areas of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was achieved in 1984. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in the less developed countries. The same family has now ruled Brunei for over six centuries.
   Geography    Brunei
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
4 30 N, 114 40 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Southeast Asia
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 5,770 sq km
water: 500 sq km
land: 5,270 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Delaware
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 381 km
border countries: Malaysia 381 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
161 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM or to median line
territorial sea: 12 NM
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; hot, humid, rainy
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, natural gas, timber
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 1%
other: 98% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
10 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are very rare
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia
   People    Brunei
Population:
Definition Field Listing
350,898 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 30.2% (male 54,038; female 51,833)
15-64 years: 67% (male 125,051; female 110,257)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 4,609; female 5,110) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.06% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
20.06 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.38 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
13.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 74.06 years
female: 76.56 years (2002 est.)
male: 71.68 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.4 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.2% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
less than 100 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Bruneian(s)
adjective: Bruneian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Malay 67%, Chinese 15%, indigenous 6%, other 12%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Muslim (official) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%, indigenous beliefs and other 10%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Malay (official), English, Chinese
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88.2%
male: 92.6%
female: 83.4% (1995 est.)
   Government    Brunei
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
conventional short form: Brunei
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional sultanate
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Bandar Seri Begawan
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
1 January 1984 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of independence from British protection
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law; for Muslims, Islamic Shari'a law supersedes civil law in a number of areas
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
none
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; deals with executive matters; note - there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the succession to the throne if the need arises
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Legislative Council or Majlis Masyuarat Megeri (a privy council that serves only in a consultative capacity; NA seats; members appointed by the monarch)
elections: last held in March 1962
note: in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive body by decree of the monarch; an elected Legislative Council is being considered as part of constitutional reform, but elections are unlikely for several years
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (chief justice and judges are sworn in by the monarch for three-year terms)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Brunei Solidarity National Party or PPKB in Malay [Haji Mohd HATTA bin Haji Zainal Abidin, president]; the PPKB is the only legal political party in Brunei; it was registered in 1985, but became largely inactive after 1988, it was revived in 1995 and again in 1998; it has less than 200 registered party members; other parties include Brunei People's Party or PRB (banned in 1962) and Brunei National Democratic Party (registered in May 1965, deregistered by the Brunei Government in 1988)
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
APEC, ARF, ASEAN, C, CCC, ESCAP, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFRCS, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador PUTEH ibni Mohammad Alam
FAX: [1] (202) 885-0560
telephone: [1] (202) 237-1838
chancery: 3520 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Sylvia Gaye STANFIELD
embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri Begawan
mailing address: PSC 470 (BSB), FPO AP 96507
telephone: [673] (2) 229670
FAX: [673] (2) 225293
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands
   Economy    Brunei
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
This small, wealthy economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures, and village tradition. Crude oil and natural gas production account for nearly half of GDP. Per capita GDP is far above most other Third World countries, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. The government provides for all medical services and subsidizes rice and housing. Brunei's leaders are concerned that steadily increased integration in the world economy will undermine internal social cohesion although it became a more prominent player by serving as chairman for the 2000 APEC (Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation) forum. Plans for the future include upgrading the labor force, reducing unemployment, strengthening the banking and tourist sectors, and, in general, further widening the economic base beyond oil and gas.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $6.2 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $18,000 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 5%
industry: 45%
services: 50% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
1% (1999 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
143,400 (1999 est.); note - includes foreign workers and military personnel
note: temporary residents make up 41% of labor force (1991)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
government 48%, production of oil, natural gas, services, and construction 42%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 10% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
10% (2001 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $2.5 billion
expenditures: $2.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.35 billion (1997 est.)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
4% (1997 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
2.22 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
2.065 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
rice, vegetables, fruits, chickens, water buffalo
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$3 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
crude oil, natural gas, refined products
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Japan 42%, US 17%, South Korea 14%, Thailand 3% (1999)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$1.4 billion (c.i.f., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Singapore 34%, UK 15%, Malaysia 15%, US 5% (1999)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$0
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$4.3 million (1995)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Bruneian dollar (BND)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
BND
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Bruneian dollars per US dollar - 1.8388 (January 2002), 1.8917 (2001), 1.7240 (2000), 1.6950 (1999), 1.6736 (1998), 1.4848 (1997); note - the Bruneian dollar is at par with the Singapore dollar
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Brunei
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
79,000 (1996)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
43,524 (1996)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: service throughout country is excellent; international service good to Europe, US, and East Asia
domestic: every service available
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean); digital submarine cable links to Malaysia, Singapore, and Philippines (2001)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 3, FM 10, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
329,000 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
2 (1997)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
201,900 (1998)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.bn
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
2 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
28,000 (2001)
   Transportation    Brunei
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 13 km (private line)
narrow gauge: 13 km 0.610-m gauge (2001 est.)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,712 km
paved: 1,284 km
unpaved: 428 km (1996)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
crude oil 135 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural gas 920 km
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Bandar Seri Begawan, Kuala Belait, Muara, Seria, Tutong
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 348,476 GRT/340,635 DWT
ships by type: liquefied gas 7
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: United Kingdom 7 (2002 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
2 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2001)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
3 (2001)
   Military    Brunei
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Royal Brunei Police
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 108,921 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 62,864 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 3,005 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$343 million (FY98)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
5.1% (FY98)
   Transnational Issues    Brunei
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Brunei established an exclusive economic fishing zone encompassing Louisa Reef in southern Spratly Islands in 1984, but makes no public territorial claim to the offshore reefs
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Bottom Banner

 




Copyright © 2013 All rights reserved.