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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Chad  
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Chad

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Chad
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of ethnic warfare as well as invasions by Libya before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually suppressed or came to terms with most political-military groups, settled a territorial dispute with Libya on terms favorable to Chad, drafted a democratic constitution, and held multiparty presidential and National Assembly elections in 1996 and 1997 respectively. In 1998 a new rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which continued to escalate throughout 2000. A peace agreement, signed in January 2002 between the government and the rebels, provides for the demobilization of the rebels and their reintegration into the political system. Despite movement toward democratic reform, power remains in the hands of a northern ethnic oligarchy.
   Geography    Chad
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Central Africa, south of Libya
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
15 00 N, 19 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1.284 million sq km
water: 24,800 sq km
land: 1,259,200 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly more than three times the size of California
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 5,968 km
border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical in south, desert in north
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Djourab Depression 160 m
highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum (unexploited but exploration under way), uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 97% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
200 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel
   People    Chad
Population:
Definition Field Listing
8,997,237 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 47.8% (male 2,162,732; female 2,135,354)
15-64 years: 49.4% (male 2,108,134; female 2,340,189)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 103,683; female 147,145) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.27% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
47.74 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
15.06 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
93.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 51.27 years
female: 53.4 years (2002 est.)
male: 49.22 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
6.5 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
5%-7% (2001)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
300,000 (2001)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
14,000 (confirmed AIDS cases, actual number far higher but difficult to estimate) (2001)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Chadian(s)
adjective: Chadian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
200 distinct groups; in the north and center: Arabs, Gorane (Toubou, Daza, Kreda), Zaghawa, Kanembou, Ouaddai, Baguirmi, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Hausa, Boulala, and Maba, most of whom are Muslim; in the south: Sara (Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye), Moundang, Moussei, Massa, most of whom are Christian or animist; about 1,000 French citizens live in Chad
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Muslim 51%, Christian 35%, animist 7%, other 7%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
total population: 40%
male: 49%
female: 31% (1998)
   Government    Chad
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Chad
conventional short form: Chad
local long form: Republique du Tchad
local short form: Tchad
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
N'Djamena
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture); Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile
note: instead of 14 prefectures, there may be a new administrative structure of 28 departments (departments, singular - department), and 1 city*; Assongha, Baguirmi, Bahr El Gazal, Bahr Koh, Batha Oriental, Batha Occidental, Biltine, Borkou, Dababa, Ennedi, Guera, Hadjer Lamis, Kabia, Kanem, Lac, Lac Iro, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Boneye, Mayo-Dallah, Monts de Lam, N'djamena*, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile Oriental, Tandjile Occidental, Tibesti
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
11 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 11 August (1960)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
passed by referendum 31 March 1996
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (since 4 December 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Nagoum YAMASSOUM (since 13 December 1999)
cabinet: Council of State, members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 63%, Ngarlegy YORONGAR 16%, Saleh KEBZABO 7%
note: government coalition - MPS, UNDR, and URD
elections: president elected by popular vote to serve five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last held 20 May 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); prime minister appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral according to constitution, consists of a National Assembly (155 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and a Senate (not yet created and size unspecified, members to serve six-year terms, one-third of membership renewable every two years)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MPS 110, RDP 12, FAR 9, RNDP 5, URD 5, UNDR 3, others 11
elections: National Assembly - last held 25 April 2002 (next to be held in NA April 2006)
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Magistrate Courts
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarlejy YORONGAR]; National Rally for Development and Progress or RNDP [Mamadou BISSO]; National Union for Development and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]; National Union for Renewal and Democracy or UNRD [leader NA]; Party for Liberty and Democracy or PLD [Ibni Oumar Mahamat SALEH]; Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman] (originally in opposition but now the party in power and the party of the president); Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lal Mahamat CHOUA]; Union for Democracy and the Republic or UDR [Jean Bawoyeu ALINGUE]; Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]; Viva Rally for Development and Progress or Viva RNDP [Delwa Kassire COUMAKOYE]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Hassaballah Abdelhadi Ahmat SOUBIANE
chancery: 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937
telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher E. GOLDTHWAIT
embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
telephone: [235] (51) 70-09
FAX: [235] (51) 56-54
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France
   Economy    Chad
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Chad's primarily agricultural economy will be boosted by major oilfield and pipeline projects that began in 2000. Over 80% of Chad's population relies on subsistence farming and stock raising for their livelihood. Cotton, cattle, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad's export earnings, but Chad will begin to export oil in 2004. Chad's economy has long been handicapped by its land-locked position, high energy costs, and a history of instability. Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most public and private sector investment projects. A consortium led by two US companies is investing $3.7 billion to develop oil reserves estimated at 1 billion barrels in southern Chad.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $8.9 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
8% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $1,030 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 38%
industry: 13%
services: 49% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
80% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
3% (2000 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture more than 80% (subsistence farming, herding, and fishing)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $198 million
expenditures: $218 million, including capital expenditures of $146 million (1998 est.)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
cotton textiles, meatpacking, beer brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
5% (1995)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
92 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
85.56 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$172 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, cattle, gum arabic
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Portugal 38%, Germany 12%, Thailand, Costa Rica, South Africa, France, Nigeria (2001)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$223 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
France 40%, Cameroon 13%, Nigeria 12%, India 5% (1999)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$1.1 billion (2000 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$238.3 million (1995); note - $125 million committed by Taiwan (August 1997); $30 million committed by African Development Bank
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
XAF
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 742.79 (January 2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997); note - from 1 January 1999, the XAF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XAF per euro
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Chad
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
10,260 (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
20,000 (2002)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: primitive system
domestic: fair system of radiotelephone communication stations
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 5 (1998)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
1.67 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
1 (1997)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
10,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.td
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
1 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
1,000 (2000)
   Transportation    Chad
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 33,400 km
paved: 450 km
note: probably no more than 8,000 km of the total receive maintenance, the remainder being desert tracks (2000)
unpaved: 32,950 km
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
2,000 km
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
none
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
49 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 7
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 42
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 10 (2001)
   Military    Chad
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Armed Forces (including National Army, Air Force, and Gendarmerie), Rapid Intervention Force, National and Nomadic Guard (GNNT), Presidential Security Guard, Police
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
20 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,881,769 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 985,094 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 82,003 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$31 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
1.9% (FY01)
   Transnational Issues    Chad
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Lake Chad Commission urges signatories Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria to ratify delimitation treaty over lake region, the site of continuing armed clashes; Nigeria requests and Chad rejects redemarcation of boundary, which lacks clear demarcation in sections and has caused several cross-border incidents; Chadian rebels from Aozou reside in Libya

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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