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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Cyprus  
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Cyprus

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Cyprus
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Independence from the UK was approved in 1960 with constitutional guarantees by the Greek Cypriot majority to the Turkish Cypriot minority. In 1974, a Greek-sponsored attempt to seize the government was met by military intervention from Turkey, which soon controlled almost 40% of the island. In 1983, the Turkish-held area declared itself the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus", but it is recognized only by Turkey. UN-led talks on the status of Cyprus resumed in December 1999 to prepare the ground for meaningful negotiations leading to a comprehensive settlement.
   Geography    Cyprus
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Middle East, island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
35 00 N, 33 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Middle East
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 9,250 sq km (of which 3,355 sq km are in the Turkish Cypriot area)
water: 10 sq km
land: 9,240 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
about 0.6 times the size of Connecticut
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
648 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 NM
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered but significant plains along southern coast
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Olympus 1,951 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth pigment
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 5%
other: 85% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
400 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
moderate earthquake activity; droughts
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, sea water intrusion to island's largest aquifer, increased salination in the north); water pollution from sewage and industrial wastes; coastal degradation; loss of wildlife habitats from urbanization
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily and Sardinia)
   People    Cyprus
Population:
Definition Field Listing
767,314 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 22.4% (male 87,981; female 84,168)
15-64 years: 66.6% (male 258,414; female 252,778)
65 years and over: 11% (male 36,607; female 47,366) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.57% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
12.91 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
7.63 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
7.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 77.08 years
female: 79.5 years (2002 est.)
male: 74.77 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.9 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.1% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
400 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Cypriot(s)
adjective: Cypriot
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Greek 85.2%, Turkish 11.6%, other 3.2% (2000)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian Apostolic, and other 4%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Greek, Turkish, English
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 98.7%
female: 95% (1999)
   Government    Cyprus
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Cyprus
conventional short form: Cyprus
note: the Turkish Cypriot area refers to itself as the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC)
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
note: a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the island began following the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified after the Turkish intervention in July 1974 after a Greek junta-based coup attempt gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish Cypriot "President" Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and the formation of a "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), recognized only by Turkey; both sides publicly support a settlement based on a federation (Greek Cypriot position) or confederation (Turkish Cypriot position)
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Nicosia
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos; note - Turkish Cypriot area's administrative divisions include Kyrenia, all but a small part of Famagusta, and small parts of Lefkosa (Nicosia) and Larnaca
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
16 August 1960 (from UK); note - Turkish Cypriot area proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 1 October (1960); note - Turkish Cypriot area celebrates 15 November (1983) as Independence Day
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently; in 1975 Turkish Cypriots created their own constitution and governing bodies within the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus," which was renamed the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" in 1983; a new constitution for the Turkish Cypriot area passed by referendum on 5 May 1985
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on common law, with civil law modifications
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Glafcos CLERIDES (since 28 February 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960 constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot
head of government: President Glafcos CLERIDES (since 28 February 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960 constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed jointly by the president and vice president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 15 February 1998 (next to be held NA February 2003)
note: Rauf R. DENKTASH has been "president" of the Turkish Cypriot area since 13 February 1975 ("president" elected by popular vote for a five-year term); elections last held 15 April 2000 (next to be held NA April 2005); results - Rauf R. DENKTASH reelected president after the other contender withdrew; Dervis EROGLU has been "prime minister" of the Turkish Cypriot area since 16 August 1996; there is a Council of Ministers (cabinet) in the Turkish Cypriot area
election results: Glafcos CLERIDES reelected president; percent of vote - Glafcos CLERIDES 50.8%, George IAKOVOU 49.2%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral - Greek Cypriot area: House of Representatives or Vouli Antiprosopon (80 seats; 56 assigned to the Greek Cypriots, 24 to Turkish Cypriots; note - only those assigned to Greek Cypriots are filled; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); Turkish Cypriot area: Assembly of the Republic or Cumhuriyet Meclisi (50 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
election results: Greek Cypriot area: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - AKEL 34.71%, DISY 34%, DIKO 14.84%, KISOS 6.51%, others 9.94%; seats by party - AKEL (Communist) 20, DISY 19, DIKO 9, KISOS 4, others 4; Turkish Cypriot area: Assembly of the Republic - percent of vote by party - UBP 40.3%, DP 22.6%, TKP 15.4%, CTP 13.4%, UDP 4.6%, YBH 2.5%, BP 1.2%; seats by party - UBP 24, DP 13, TKP 7, CTP 6
elections: Greek Cypriot area: last held 27 May 2001 (next to be held NA May 2006); Turkish Cypriot area: last held 6 December 1998 (next to be held NA December 2003)
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (judges are appointed jointly by the president and vice president)
note: there is also a Supreme Court in the Turkish Cypriot area
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Greek Cypriot area: Democratic Party or DIKO [Tassos PAPADOPOULOS]; Democratic Rally or DISY [Nikos ANASTASIADHIS]; Eurodemocratic Renewal Movement or KEA [Antonis PASCHALIDES]; Fighting Democratic Movement or ADIK [Dinos MIKHAILIDIS]; Green Party of Cyprus [George PERDIKIS]; New Horizons [Nikolaus KOUTSOU]; Restorative Party of the Working People or AKEL (Communist Party) [Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS]; Social Democrats Movement or KISOS (formerly United Democratic Union of Cyprus or EDEK) [Yiannakis OMIROU]; United Democrats Movement or EDE [George VASSILIOU]; Turkish Cypriot area: Communal Liberation Party or TKP [Huseyin ANGOLEMLI]; Democratic Party or DP [Salih COSAR]; National Birth Party or UDP [Enver EMIN]; National Unity Party or UBP [Dervis EROGLU]; Our Party or BP [Okyay SADIKOGLU]; Patriotic Unity Movement or YBH [Izzet IZCAN]; Republican Turkish Party or CTP [Mehmet ALI TALAT]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Confederation of Cypriot Workers or SEK (pro-West); Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions or Dev-Is; Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions or Turk-Sen; Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation or PEO (Communist controlled)
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Australia Group, C, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Erato KOZAKOU-MARCOULLIS
chancery: 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
FAX: [1] (202) 483-6710
note: representative of the Turkish Cypriot area in the US is Osman ERTUG; office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC; telephone [1] (202) 887-6198
consulate(s) general: New York
telephone: [1] (202) 462-5772
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Donald K. BANDLER
embassy: corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, Engomi, 2407 Nicosia
mailing address: P. O. Box 24536, FPO AE 09836
telephone: [357] (22) 776400
FAX: [357] (22) 780944
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the name Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish communities
note: the Turkish Cypriot flag has a horizontal red stripe at the top and bottom between which is a red crescent and red star on a white field
   Economy    Cyprus
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Economic affairs are affected by the division of the country. The Greek Cypriot economy is prosperous but highly susceptible to external shocks. Erratic growth rates in the 1990s reflect the economy's vulnerability to swings in tourist arrivals, caused by political instability in the region and fluctuations in economic conditions in Western Europe. Economic policy is focused on meeting the criteria for admission to the EU. As in the Turkish sector, water shortages are a perennial problem; a few desalination plants are now online. The Turkish Cypriot economy has less than one-half the per capita GDP of the south. Because it is recognized only by Turkey, it has had much difficulty arranging foreign financing, and foreign firms have hesitated to invest there. It remains heavily dependent on agriculture and government service, which together employ about half of the work force. To compensate for the economy's weakness, Turkey provides substantial direct and indirect aid to tourism, education, industry, etc.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
Greek Cypriot area: purchasing power parity - $9.1 billion (2001 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: purchasing power parity - $1.1 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
Greek Cypriot area: 2.6% (2001 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 0.8% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
Greek Cypriot area: purchasing power parity - $15,000 (2001 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: purchasing power parity - $7,000 (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
Greek Cypriot area: agriculture 4.6%, industry 19.9%, services 75.5% (2001); Turkish Cypriot area: agriculture 8.3%, industry 20.7%, services 71.0% (2000)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
Greek Cypriot area: 1.9% (2001 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 53.2% (2000 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
Greek Cypriot area: 291,000; Turkish Cypriot area: 86,300 (2000)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
Greek Cypriot area: services 73%, industry 22%, agriculture 5% (2000); Turkish Cypriot area: services 56.4%, industry 22.8%, agriculture 20.8% (1998)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
Greek Cypriot area: 3% (2001 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 5.6% (1999 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: Greek Cypriot area - $2.4 billion (2001 est.); Turkish Cypriot area - $294 million (2000 est.)
expenditures: Greek Cypriot area - $3.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $539 million (2001 est.); Turkish Cypriot area - $495 million, including capital expenditures of $60 million (2000 est.)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products, tourism, wood products
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
Greek Cypriot area: 2.2% (1999); Turkish Cypriot area: -0.3% (1999)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
3.13 billion kWh (1999); Turkish Cypriot area: NA kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 100%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
hydro: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
2.911 billion kWh (1999); Turkish Cypriot area: NA kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
potatoes, citrus, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, vegetables
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
Greek Cypriot area: $851 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: $50.7 million (f.o.b., 2000)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
Greek Cypriot area: citrus, potatoes, grapes, wine, cement, clothing and shoes; Turkish Cypriot area: citrus, potatoes, textiles
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Greek Cypriot area: EU 36% (UK 17%, Greece 8%), Russia 8%, Syria 7%, Lebanon 5%, US 2% (2000); Turkish Cypriot area: Turkey 51%, UK 31%, other EU 16.5% (1999)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
Greek Cypriot area: $3.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: $424.9 million (f.o.b., 2000)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
Greek Cypriot area: consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, food and feed grains, machinery; Turkish Cypriot area: food, minerals, chemicals, machinery
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Greek Cypriot area: EU 52% (UK 11%, Italy 9%, Greece 9%, Germany 7%), US 10% (2000); Turkish Cypriot area: Turkey 59%, UK 13%, other EU 13% (1999)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
Greek Cypriot area: $NA; Turkish Cypriot area: $NA
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
Greek Cypriot area - $17 million (1998); Turkish Cypriot area - $700 million from Turkey in grants and loans (1990-97) which are usually forgiven
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Greek Cypriot area: Cypriot pound (CYP); Turkish Cypriot area: Turkish lira (TRL)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
CYP; TRL
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Cypriot pounds per US dollar - 0.6518 (January 2002), 0.6427 (2001), 0.6208 (2000), 0.5423 (1999), 0.5170 (1998), 0.5135 (1997); Turkish liras per US dollar - 1,370,629 (January 2002), 1,223,140 (2001), 625,219 (2000), 418,783 (1999), 260,724 (1998), 151,865 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Cyprus
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
Greek Cypriot area: 405,000 (1998); Turkish Cypriot area: 83,162 (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
Greek Cypriot area: 68,000 (1998); Turkish Cypriot area: 70,000 (1999)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: excellent in both the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot areas
domestic: open wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay
international: tropospheric scatter; 3 coaxial and 5 fiber-optic submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
Greek Cypriot area: AM 7, FM 60, shortwave 1 (1998); Turkish Cypriot area: AM 3, FM 11, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
Greek Cypriot area: 310,000 (1997); Turkish Cypriot area: 56,450 (1994)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
Greek Cypriot area: 4 (plus 225 low-power repeaters) (September 1995); Turkish Cypriot area: 4 (plus 5 repeaters) (September 1995)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
Greek Cypriot area: 248,000 (1997); Turkish Cypriot area: 52,300 (1994)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.cy
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
6 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
120,000 (2001)
   Transportation    Cyprus
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: Greek Cypriot area: 10,663 km (1998 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 2,350 km (1996 est.)
paved: Greek Cypriot area: 6,249 km (1998 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 1,370 km (1996 est.)
unpaved: Greek Cypriot area: 4,414 km (1998 est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 980 km (1996 est.)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
none
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Paphos, Vasilikos
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,254 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,802,712 GRT/36,337,768 DWT
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Austria 12, Belgium 2, Bulgaria 2, Canada 3, Chile 2, China 16, Croatia 2, Cuba 11, Finland 1, Germany 229, Greece 607, Guam 1, Hong Kong 6, India 6, Iran 1, Ireland 1, Israel 5, Italy 1, Japan 26, Latvia 14, Lebanon 1, Lithuania 2, Mexico 1, Monaco 10, Netherlands 30, Norway 23, Panama 1, Philippines 2, Poland 19, Portugal 2, Russia 57, Singapore 2, Slovenia 2, South Korea 4, Spain 7, Sudan 2, Sweden 6, Switzerland 4, Turkey 1, Ukraine 1, United Arab Emirates 13, United Kingdom 6, United States 4, Vietnam 1 (2002 est.)
ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk 438, cargo 378, chemical tanker 24, combination bulk 31, combination ore/oil 2, container 133, liquefied gas 4, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 131, refrigerated cargo 46, roll on/roll off 41, short-sea passenger 10, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 3
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
15 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2001)
914 to 1,523 m: 3
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (2001)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
7 (2001)
   Military    Cyprus
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Greek area: Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG; including air and naval elements), Greek Cypriot Police
Turkish area: Turkish Cypriot Security Force (GKK)
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 200,071 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 137,322 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 6,616 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$370 million (FY00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
4.2% (FY00)
   Transnational Issues    Cyprus
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
reunification talks - the first since 1974 hostilities divided the island into two de facto autonomous areas, a Greek Cypriot area controlled by the internationally recognized Cypriot Government (59% of the island's land area) and a Turkish-Cypriot area (37% of the island), that are separated by a UN buffer zone (4% of the island) - have recommenced; there are two UK sovereign base areas mostly within the Greek-Cypriot portion of the island
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
minor transit point for heroin and hashish via air routes and container traffic to Europe, especially from Lebanon and Turkey; some cocaine transits as well

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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