Top banner
The World Factbook 2002

         
  El Salvador  
Flag of El Salvador
Click to enlarge
Categories Banner
  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of El Salvador

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    El Salvador
Background:
Definition Field Listing
El Salvador achieved independence from Spain in 1821 and from the Central American Federation in 1839. A 12-year civil war, which cost about 75,000 lives, was brought to a close in 1992 when the government and leftist rebels signed a treaty that provided for military and political reforms.
   Geography    El Salvador
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Middle America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and Honduras
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
13 50 N, 88 55 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 21,040 sq km
water: 320 sq km
land: 20,720 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Massachusetts
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 545 km
border countries: Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
307 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 200 NM
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April); tropical on coast; temperate in uplands
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Cerro El Pital 2,730 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 27%
permanent crops: 12%
other: 61% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
360 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
known as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and sometimes very destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity; extremely susceptible to hurricanes
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution; contamination of soils from disposal of toxic wastes
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on Caribbean Sea
   People    El Salvador
Population:
Definition Field Listing
6,353,681 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 37.4% (male 1,211,156; female 1,162,317)
15-64 years: 57.5% (male 1,735,744; female 1,922,395)
65 years and over: 5.1% (male 144,864; female 177,205) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.83% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
28.3 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
6.1 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-3.88 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
27.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 70.32 years
female: 74.11 years (2002 est.)
male: 66.72 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.29 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.6% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
25,000 (2000 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
1,300 (1999 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Salvadoran(s)
adjective: Salvadoran
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
mestizo 90%, Amerindian 1%, white 9%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 83%
note: there is extensive activity by Protestant groups throughout the country; by the end of 1992, there were an estimated 1 million Protestant evangelicals in El Salvador
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Spanish, Nahua (among some Amerindians)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 71.5%
male: 73.5%
female: 69.8% (1995 est.)
   Government    El Salvador
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of El Salvador
conventional short form: El Salvador
local short form: El Salvador
local long form: Republica de El Salvador
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
San Salvador
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
14 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, Santa Ana, San Vicente, Sonsonate, Usulutan
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
23 December 1983
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Francisco FLORES Perez (since 1 June 1999); Vice President Carlos QUINTANILLA Schmidt (since 1 June 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Francisco FLORES Perez (since 1 June 1999); Vice President Carlos QUINTANILLA Schmidt (since 1 June 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 7 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2004)
election results: Francisco FLORES Perez elected president; percent of vote - Francisco FLORES (ARENA) 52%, Facundo GUARDADO (FMLN) 29%, Ruben ZAMORA (CD) 7.5%, other (no individual above 3%) 11.5%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (84 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve three-year terms)
elections: last held 12 March 2000 (next to be held NA March 2003)
election results: percent of vote by party - ARENA 36.1%, FMLN 35.14%, PCN 8.76%, PDC 7.08%, CD 5.32%, PAN 3.75%, USC 1.47%, PLD 1.29%; seats by party - ARENA 28, FMLN 31, PCN 14, PDC 5, CD 3, PAN 1, independent 2
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are selected by the Legislative Assembly)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Rene AGUILUZ]; Democratic Convergence or CD (includes PSD, MNR, MPSC) [Ruben ZAMORA, secretary general]; Democratic Party or PD [Jorge MELENDEZ]; Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front or FMLN [Fabio CASTILLO]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Kirio Waldo SALGADO, president]; National Action Party or PAN [Gustavo Rogelio SALINAS, secretary general]; National Conciliation Party or PCN [Ciro CRUZ Zepeda, president]; National Republican Alliance or ARENA [Walter ARAUJO]; Social Christian Union or USC (formed by the merger of Christian Social Renewal Party or PRSC and Unity Movement or MU) [Abraham RODRIGUEZ, president]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
labor organizations - Electrical Industry Union of El Salvador or SIES; Federation of the Construction Industry, Similar Transport and other activities, or FESINCONTRANS; National Confederation of Salvadoran Workers or CNTS; National Union of Salvadoran Workers or UNTS; Port Industry Union of El Salvador or SIPES; Salvadoran Union of Ex-Petrolleros and Peasant Workers or USEPOC; Salvadoran Workers Central or CTS; Workers Union of Electrical Corporation or STCEL; business organizations - National Association of Small Enterprise or ANEP; Salvadoran Assembly Industry Association or ASIC; Salvadoran Industrial Association or ASI
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Rene Antonio LEON Rodriguez
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9671
chancery: 2308 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Rose M. LIKINS
embassy: Final Boulevard Santa Elenal, Antiguo Cuscatlan, La Libertad, San Salvador
mailing address: Unit 3116, APO AA 34023
telephone: [503] 278-4444
FAX: [503] 278-6011
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which has a different coat of arms centered in the white band - it features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band
   Economy    El Salvador
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
El Salvador is a struggling Central American economy which has been suffering from a weak tax collection system, factory closings, the aftermaths of Hurricane Mitch of 1998 and the devastating earthquakes of early 2001, and weak world coffee prices. On the bright side, in recent years inflation has fallen to single digit levels, and total exports have grown substantially. The trade deficit has been offset by remittances (an estimated $1.6 billion in 2000) from Salvadorans living abroad and by external aid. As of 1 January 2001, the US dollar was made legal tender alongside the colon. Growth in 2002 will depend largely on the speed of recovery in the US.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $28.4 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.4% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $4,600 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 10%
industry: 30%
services: 60% (2000)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
48% (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 1.4%
highest 10%: 39.3% (2001)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
50.8 (1997)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
3.8% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
2.35 million (1999)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 30%, industry 15%, services 55% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
10% (2001 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $2.1 billion
expenditures: $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
food processing, beverages, petroleum, chemicals, fertilizer, textiles, furniture, light metals
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
3.69 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 42.3%
hydro: 35.5%
other: 22.2% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
4.07 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
112 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
750 million kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, sugar, corn, rice, beans, oilseed, cotton, sorghum; shrimp; beef, dairy products
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$2.9 billion (2001)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
offshore assembly exports, coffee, sugar, shrimp, textiles, chemicals, electricity
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 65%, Guatemala 11%, Honduras 8%, EU 5% (2000)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$5 billion (2001)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods, fuels, foodstuffs, petroleum, electricity
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 50%, Guatemala 10%, EU 7%, Mexico 5%, (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$4.9 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
total $252 million; $57 million from US (1999 est.)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Salvadoran colon (SVC); US dollar (USD)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
SVC; USD
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Salvadoran colones per US dollar - 8.750 (fixed since January 2001), 8.755 (fixed rate since 1993)
note: since January 2001 the US dollar has also become legal tender; the exchange rate has been fixed at 8.75 colones per US dollar
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    El Salvador
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
380,000 (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
40,163 (1997)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: NA
domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 61 (plus 24 repeaters), FM 30, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
2.75 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
5 (1997)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
600,000 (1990)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.sv
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
4 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
40,000 (2000)
   Transportation    El Salvador
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 562 km
narrow gauge: 562 km 0.914-m gauge
note: length of operational route is reduced to 283 km by disuse and lack of maintenance (2001 est.)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 10,029 km
paved: 1,986 km (including 327 km of expressways)
unpaved: 8,043 km (1997)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
Rio Lempa partially navigable
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Acajutla, Puerto Cutuco, La Libertad, La Union, Puerto El Triunfo
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
none (2002 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
83 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 79
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 62 (2001)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2001)
   Military    El Salvador
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy (FNES), Air Force
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,500,712 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 951,715 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 68,103 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$112 million (FY99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
0.7% (FY99)
   Transnational Issues    El Salvador
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
El Salvador claims tiny Conejo Island off Honduras in the Golfo de Fonseca; many of the "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the El Salvador-Honduras boundary remain undemarcated despite ICJ adjudication in 1992; with respect to the maritime boundary in the Golfo de Fonseca, the ICJ referred to the line determined by the 1900 Honduras-Nicaragua Mixed Boundary Commission and advised that some tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua likely would be required
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transshipment point for cocaine; small amounts of marijuana produced for local consumption; domestic cocaine abuse on the rise

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Bottom Banner

 




Copyright © 2013 All rights reserved.