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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Fiji  
Flag of Fiji
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Fiji

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Fiji
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Fiji became independent in 1970, after nearly a century as a British colony. Democratic rule was interrupted by two military coups in 1987, caused by concern over a government perceived as dominated by the Indian community (descendants of contract laborers brought to the islands by the British in the 19th century). A 1990 constitution favored native Melanesian control of Fiji, but led to heavy Indian emigration; the population loss resulted in economic difficulties, but ensured that Melanesians became the majority. Amendments enacted in 1997 made the constitution more equitable. Free and peaceful elections in 1999 resulted in a government led by an Indo-Fijian, but a coup in May of 2000 ushered in a prolonged period of political turmoil. Parliamentary elections held in August 2001 provided Fiji with a democratically elected government and gave a mandate to the government of Prime Minister Laisenia QARASE.
   Geography    Fiji
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Oceania, island group in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
18 00 S, 175 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Oceania
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 18,270 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 18,270 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
1,129 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
territorial sea: 12 NM
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation; rectilinear shelf claim added
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly mountains of volcanic origin
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Tomanivi 1,324 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 11%
permanent crops: 5%
other: 84% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
30 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
cyclonic storms can occur from November to January
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation; soil erosion
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
includes 332 islands of which approximately 110 are inhabited
   People    Fiji
Population:
Definition Field Listing
856,346 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 32.5% (male 141,757; female 136,198)
15-64 years: 63.8% (male 273,658; female 273,100)
65 years and over: 3.7% (male 14,648; female 16,985) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.41% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
23.2 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
5.72 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-3.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
13.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 68.56 years
female: 71.11 years (2002 est.)
male: 66.13 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.83 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.07% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
85 (2000 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Fijian(s)
adjective: Fijian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Fijian 51% (predominantly Melanesian with a Polynesian admixture), Indian 44%, European, other Pacific Islanders, overseas Chinese, and other 5% (1998 est.)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Christian 52% (Methodist 37%, Roman Catholic 9%), Hindu 38%, Muslim 8%, other 2%
note: Fijians are mainly Christian, Indians are Hindu, and there is a Muslim minority (1986)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
English (official), Fijian, Hindustani
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.5%
male: 90%
female: 95% (1999 est.)
   Government    Fiji
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of the Fiji Islands
conventional short form: Fiji
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
note: military coup leader Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA formally declared Fiji a republic on 6 October 1987
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Suva
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
4 divisions and 1 dependency*; Central, Eastern, Northern, Rotuma*, Western
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
10 October 1970 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, second Monday of October (1970)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
promulgated on 25 July 1990 and amended on 25 July 1997 to allow nonethnic Fijians greater say in government and to make multiparty government mandatory; entered into force 28 July 1998; note - the May 1999 election was the first test of the amended constitution and introduced open voting - not racially prescribed - for the first time at the national level
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on British system
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Ratu Josefa ILOILOVATU Uluivuda (since NA 2000); Vice President Jope SENILOLI (since NA 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Laisenia QARASE (since 10 September 2000); Deputy Prime Minister Ratu Epeli NAILATIKAU (since NA 2000)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the members of Parliament and is responsible to Parliament; note - there is also a Presidential Council that advises the president on matters of national importance and a Great Council of Chiefs which consists of the highest ranking members of the traditional chiefly system
elections: president elected by the Great Council of Chiefs for a five-year term; prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Ratu Josefa ILOILOVATU Uluivuda elected president by the Great Council of Chiefs; percent of vote - NA%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (34 seats; 24 appointed by the Great Council of Chiefs, nine appointed by the president, and one appointed by the council of Rotuma) and the House of Representatives (71 seats; 23 reserved for ethnic Fijians, 19 reserved for ethnic Indians, three reserved for other ethnic groups, one reserved for the council of Rotuma constituency encompassing the whole of Fiji, and 25 open seats; members serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 25 August, 2 September, 19 September 2001 (next to be held NA September 2006)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - FLP 34.8%, SDL 26%, NFP 10.1%, MV 9.9%, independents 2.7%, other 16.5%; seats by party - SDL 32, FLP 27, MV 6, NFP 1, independents 2, other 3
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); Court of Appeal; High Court; Magistrates' Courts
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Bai Kei Viti Party or BKV [Ratu Tevita MOMOEDONU]; Christian Democrat Alliance or VLV [leader NA]; Conservative Alliance Party/Matanitu Vanua or MV [Ratu Rakuita VAKALALABURE]; Dodonu Ni Taukei Party or DNT [leader NA]; Fiji Labor Party or FLP [Mahendra CHAUDRHRY]; Fijian Association Party of FAP [Adi Kuini SPEED]; Fijian Political Party or SVT (primarily Fijian) [Felipe BOLE]; General Voters Party or GHP [leader NA]; Girmit Heritage Party or GHP [leader NA]; Justice and Freedom Party or AIM [leader NA]; Lio 'On Famor Rotuma Party or LFR [leader NA]; National Federation Party or NFP (primarily Indian) [Attar SINGH]; Nationalist Vanua Tako Lavo Party or NVTLP [Samisoni BOLATAGICI]; New Labor Unity Party or NLUP [Tupeni BABA]; Party of National Unity or PANU [leader NA]; Party of the Truth or POTT [leader NA]; United Fiji Party/Sogosogo Duavata ni Lewenivanua or SDL [Laisenia QARASE]; United General Party or UGP [Mick BEDDOES]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACP, AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, OPCW, PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNTAET, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Anare JALE
FAX: [1] (202) 337-1996
telephone: [1] (202) 337-8320
chancery: Suite 240, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Ronald K. McMULLEN
embassy: 31 Loftus Street, Suva
mailing address: P. O. Box 218, Suva
telephone: [679] 314466
FAX: [679] 300081
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield depicts a yellow lion above a white field quartered by the cross of Saint George featuring stalks of sugarcane, a palm tree, bananas, and a white dove
   Economy    Fiji
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Fiji, endowed with forest, mineral, and fish resources, is one of the most developed of the Pacific island economies, though still with a large subsistence sector. Sugar exports and a growing tourist industry - with 300,000 to 400,000 tourists annually - are the major sources of foreign exchange. Sugar processing makes up one-third of industrial activity. Long-term problems include low investment and uncertain property rights. The political turmoil in Fiji has had a severe impact with the economy shrinking by 2.8% in 2000 and growing by only 1% in 2001. The Fiji Visitor's Bureau expects visitor arrivals to reach pre-coup levels during 2002. The government's ability to manage its budget - which is expected to run a net deficit of 6% in 2002 - will depend upon a return of political stability and investor confidence.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $4.4 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $5,200 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 17%
industry: 25%
services: 58% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
25.5% (1990-91)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
3% (2000 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
137,000 (1999)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture, including subsistence agriculture 70% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
7.6% (1999)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $427.9 million
expenditures: $531.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
tourism, sugar, clothing, copra, gold, silver, lumber, small cottage industries
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
515 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 18.06%
hydro: 81.94%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
478.95 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
sugarcane, coconuts, cassava (tapioca), rice, sweet potatoes, bananas; cattle, pigs, horses, goats; fish
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$572 million (f.o.b., 2000)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
sugar, garments, gold, timber, fish, molasses, coconut oil
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Australia 24.9%, US 20.8%, UK 14.4%, Japan 5.1%, other Pacific island countries 5.0%, NZ 3.6% (2000)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$833 million (c.i.f., 2000)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products, food, chemicals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Australia 46.2%, NZ 13.1%, Singapore 6.6%, Japan 4.5%, Hong Kong 3.8%, US 3.2%, Taiwan 3.0% (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$162.7 million (1999)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$40.3 million (1995)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Fijian dollar (FJD)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
FJD
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Fijian dollars per US dollar - 2.2934 (January 2002), 2.2766 (2001), 2.1286 (2000), 1.9696 (1999), 1.9868 (1998), 1.4437 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Fiji
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
80,901 (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
5,200 (1997)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: modern local, interisland, and international (wire/radio integrated) public and special-purpose telephone, telegraph, and teleprinter facilities; regional radio communications center
domestic: NA
international: access to important cable links between US and Canada as well as between NZ and Australia; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 13, FM 40, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
541,476 (1999)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
88,110 (1999)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.fj
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
2 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
7,500 (2000)
   Transportation    Fiji
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 597 km
narrow gauge: 597 km 0.610-m gauge
note: belongs to the government-owned Fiji Sugar Corporation (1995)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3,440 km
paved: 1,692 km
unpaved: 1,748 km (1996)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
203 km
note: 122 km navigable by motorized craft and 200-metric-ton barges
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Lambasa, Lautoka, Levuka, Malau, Savusavu, Suva, Vuda
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,870 GRT/14,787 DWT
ships by type: chemical tanker 2, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1, specialized tanker 1, includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Australia 1, Singapore 4 (2002 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
27 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 24
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 18 (2001)
   Military    Fiji
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RFMF), includes ground forces, naval division
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 231,649 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 127,384 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 9,471 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$35 million (FY00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
2.2% (FY00)
   Transnational Issues    Fiji
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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