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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)  
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
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  Economy
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In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Although first sighted by an English navigator in 1592, the first landing (English) did not occur until almost a century later in 1690, and the first settlement (French) was not established until 1764. The colony was turned over to Spain two years later and the islands have since been the subject of a territorial dispute, first between Britain and Spain, then between Britain and Argentina. The UK asserted its claim to the islands by establishing a naval garrison there in 1833. Argentina invaded the islands on 2 April 1982. The British responded with an expeditionary force that landed seven weeks later and after fierce fighting forced Argentine surrender on 14 June 1982.
   Geography    Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southern South America, islands in the South Atlantic Ocean, east of southern Argentina
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
51 45 S, 59 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
South America
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 12,173 sq km
note: includes the two main islands of East and West Falkland and about 200 small islands
water: 0 sq km
land: 12,173 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
1,288 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
continental shelf: 200 NM
exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain occurs on more than half of days in year; occasional snow all year, except in January and February, but does not accumulate
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating plains
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Usborne 705 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
fish, wildlife
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (99% permanent pastures, 1% other) (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
NA sq km
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
strong winds persist throughout the year
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
overfishing by unlicensed vessels is a problem; reindeer were introduced to the islands in 2001 for commercial reasons; this is the only commercial reindeer herd in the world unaffected by the Chornobyl disaster
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors; short growing season
   People    Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Population:
Definition Field Listing
2,967 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: NA%
15-64 years: NA%
65 years and over: NA%
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.44% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA births/1,000 population
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: NA years
male: NA years
female: NA years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA children born/woman
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Falkland Islander(s)
adjective: Falkland Island
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
British
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
primarily Anglican, Roman Catholic, United Free Church, Evangelist Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Seventh-Day Adventist
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
English
   Government    Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Dependency status:
Definition Field Listing
overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Stanley
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
3 October 1985; amended 1997 and 1998
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
English common law
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch
head of government: Governor Donald LAMONT (since NA May 1999); note - Howard PEARCE was elected governor on 24 January 2002, but will not take office until October 2002; Chief Executive A. M. GURR (since NA); Financial Secretary D. F. HOWATT (since NA)
cabinet: Executive Council; three members elected by the Legislative Council, two ex officio members (chief executive and the financial secretary), and the governor
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Legislative Council (10 seats - 2 ex officio, 8 elected by popular vote, members serve four-year terms); presided over by the governor
elections: last held 22 November 2001 (next to be held NA November 2005)
election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - independents 8; note - 71% voter turnout
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (chief justice is a nonresident); Magistrates Court (senior magistrate presides over civil and criminal divisions); Court of Summary Jurisdiction
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
none; all independents
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
none
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ICFTU
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Falkland Island coat of arms in a white disk centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a white ram (sheep raising is the major economic activity) above the sailing ship Desire (whose crew discovered the islands) with a scroll at the bottom bearing the motto DESIRE THE RIGHT
   Economy    Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
The economy was formerly based on agriculture, mainly sheep farming, but today fishing contributes the bulk of economic activity. In 1987 the government began selling fishing licenses to foreign trawlers operating within the Falklands exclusive fishing zone. These license fees total more than $40 million per year, which goes to support the island's health, education, and welfare system. Squid accounts for 75% of the fish taken. Dairy farming supports domestic consumption; crops furnish winter fodder. Exports feature shipments of high-grade wool to the UK and the sale of postage stamps and coins. The islands are now self-financing except for defense. The British Geological Survey announced a 200-mile oil exploration zone around the islands in 1993, and early seismic surveys suggest substantial reserves capable of producing 500,000 barrels per day; to date no exploitable site has been identified. An agreement between Argentina and the UK in 1995 seeks to defuse licensing and sovereignty conflicts that would dampen foreign interest in exploiting potential oil reserves. Tourism is increasing rapidly, with about 30,000 visitors in 2001. The second largest source of income is interest paid on money the government has in the bank. The British military presence also provides a sizeable economic boost.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $52 million (1996 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1% (FY95/96 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $19,000 (FY95/96 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
3.6% (1998)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
1,100 (est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 95% (mostly sheepherding and fishing)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
full employment; labor shortage
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $66.2 million
expenditures: $67.9 million, including capital expenditures of $23.2 million (FY98/99 est.)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
wool and fish processing; sale of stamps and coins; tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
12 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
other: 0% (1999)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
11.2 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (1999)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
fodder and vegetable crops; sheep, dairy products
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$7.6 million (1995)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
wool, hides, meat
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
UK, Japan, Chile, NZ
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$24.7 million (1995)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
fuel, food and drink, building materials, clothing
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
UK, Japan, Chile, NZ
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$NA
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
none
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Falkland pound (FKP)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
FKP
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Falkland pounds per US dollar - 0.6981 (January 2002), 0.6944 (2001), 0.6596 (2000), 0.6180 (1999), 0.6037 (1998), 0.6106 (1997); note - the Falkland pound is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 April - 31 March
   Communications    Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: NA
domestic: government-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB radiotelephone networks provide effective service to almost all points on both islands
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) with links through London to other countries
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 1, FM 7, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
1,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
2 (operated by the British Forces Broadcasting Service)
note: cable television is available in Stanley (2002)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
1,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.fk
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
2 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
NA; however one-half of all households are reported to have internet access (2002)
   Transportation    Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 550 km
paved: at least 50 km
unpaved: NA (2002)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
none
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Stanley
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
none (2002 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
5 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 1 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3 3
under 914 m: 3 (2001)
   Military    Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
British Forces Falkland Islands no regular indigenous military forces; (includes Army, Royal Air Force, and Royal Navy), Police Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$NA
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Military - note:
Definition Field Listing
defense is the responsibility of the UK
   Transnational Issues    Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
claimed by Argentina

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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