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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Gambia, The  
Flag of Gambia, The
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Gambia, The

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Gambia, The
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The Gambia gained its independence from the UK in 1965; it formed a short-lived federation of Senegambia with Senegal between 1982 and 1989. In 1991 the two nations signed a friendship and cooperation treaty. A military coup in 1994 overthrew the president and banned political activity, but a new 1996 constitution and presidential elections, followed by parliamentary balloting in 1997, completed a nominal return to civilian rule. The country undertook another round of presidential and legislative elections in late 2001 and early 2002.
   Geography    Gambia, The
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and Senegal
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
13 28 N, 16 34 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 11,300 sq km
land: 10,000 sq km
water: 1,300 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly less than twice the size of Delaware
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 740 km
border countries: Senegal 740 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
80 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
contiguous zone: 18 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: not specified
exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler, dry season (November to May)
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
flood plain of the Gambia river flanked by some low hills
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 53 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
fish
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 19%
permanent crops: 1%
other: 80% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
20 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
drought (rainfall has dropped by 30% in the last 30 years)
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation; desertification; water-borne diseases prevalent
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
almost an enclave of Senegal; smallest country on the continent of Africa
   People    Gambia, The
Population:
Definition Field Listing
1,455,842 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 45.1% (male 329,530; female 326,627)
15-64 years: 52.3% (male 377,357; female 383,548)
65 years and over: 2.6% (male 20,237; female 18,543) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.09% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
41.25 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
12.63 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.09 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
76.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 53.98 years
female: 56.01 years (2002 est.)
male: 52.02 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
5.61 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.95% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
13,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
1,400 (1999 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Gambian(s)
adjective: Gambian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
African 99% (Mandinka 42%, Fula 18%, Wolof 16%, Jola 10%, Serahuli 9%, other 4%), non-African 1%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Muslim 90%, Christian 9%, indigenous beliefs 1%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
English (official), Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other indigenous vernaculars
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 47.5%
male: 58.4%
female: 37.1% (2001 est.)
   Government    Gambia, The
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of The Gambia
conventional short form: The Gambia
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic under multiparty democratic rule
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Banjul
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
5 divisions and 1 city*; Banjul*, Central River, Lower River, North Bank, Upper River, Western
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
18 February 1965 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 18 February (1965)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
24 April 1970; suspended July 1994; rewritten and approved by national referendum 8 August 1996; reestablished in January 1997
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on a composite of English common law, Koranic law, and customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH (since 18 October 1996; note - from 1994 to 1996 was Chairman of the Junta); Vice President Isatou Njie SAIDY (since 20 March 1997); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH (since 18 October 1996; note - from 1994 to 1996 was Chairman of the Junta); Vice President Isatou Njie SAIDY (since 20 March 1997); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; the number of terms is not restricted; election last held 18 October 2001 (next to be held NA October 2006)
election results: Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH reelected president; percent of vote - Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH 52.9%, Ousainou DARBOE 32.7%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Assembly (53 seats; 48 elected by popular vote, five appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 17 January 2002 (next to be held NA January 2007)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - APRC 45, PDOIS 2, NRP 1,
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation and Construction or APRC [Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH]; Gambian People's Party-Progressive People's Party-United Democratic Party or GPP-PPP-UDP Coalition [Ousainou DARBOE]; National Convention Party or NCP [Sheriff DIBBA]; National Reconciliation Party or NRP [Hamat N. K. BAH]; People's Democratic Organization for Independence and Socialism or PDOIS [Sidia JATTA]
note: in August 2001, an independent electoral commission allowed the reregistration of the GPP, NCP, and PPP, three parties banned since 1996
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIK, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador John P. BOJANG
chancery: Suite 1000, 1155 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
FAX: [1] (202) 785-1430
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1399
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Jackson McDONALD
embassy: Fajara, Kairaba Avenue, Banjul
mailing address: P. M. B. No. 19, Banjul
telephone: [220] 392856, 392858, 391970, 391971
FAX: [220] 392475
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue with white edges, and green
   Economy    Gambia, The
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
The Gambia has no important mineral or other natural resources and has a limited agricultural base. About 75% of the population depends on crops and livestock for its livelihood. Small-scale manufacturing activity features the processing of peanuts, fish, and hides. Reexport trade normally constitutes a major segment of economic activity, but a 1999 government-imposed preshipment inspection plan, and instability of the Gambian dalasi (currency) have drawn some of the reexport trade away from Banjul. The government's 1998 seizure of the private peanut firm Alimenta eliminated the largest purchaser of Gambian groundnuts; the following two marketing seasons have seen substantially lower prices and sales. A decline in tourism in 2000 has also held back growth. Unemployment and underemployment rates are extremely high. Shortrun economic progress remains highly dependent on sustained bilateral and multilateral aid, on responsible government economic management as forwarded by IMF technical help and advice, and on expected growth in the construction sector. Record crops undergirded sturdy growth in 2001.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $2.5 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
5.7% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $1,770 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 21%
industry: 12%
services: 67% (1998 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
4% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
400,000
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 75%, industry, commerce, and services 19%, government 6%
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $90.5 million
expenditures: $80.9 million, including capital expenditures of $4.1 million (2001 est.)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
processing peanuts, fish, and hides; tourism; beverages; agricultural machinery assembly, woodworking, metalworking; clothing
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
75 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
69.75 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
peanuts, millet, sorghum, rice, corn, sesame, cassava (tapioca), palm kernels; cattle, sheep, goats; forest and fishery resources not fully exploited
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$139.2 million (f.o.b., 2001)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
peanuts and peanut products, fish, cotton lint, palm kernels
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Benelux 26%, Japan 15%, UK 14%, Brazil 7% (2000)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$200.3 million (f.o.b., 2001)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
foodstuffs, manufactures, fuel, machinery and transport equipment
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
China (including Hong Kong) 18%, UK 10%, Netherlands 8%, France 6%, Brazil 6% (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$440 million (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$45.4 million (1995)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
dalasi (GMD)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
GMD
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
dalasi per US dollar - 15.000 (January 2001), 12.788 (2000), 11.395 (1999), 10.643 (1998), 10.200 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Gambia, The
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
31,900 (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
5,624 (2000)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: adequate; a packet switched data network is available
domestic: adequate network of microwave radio relay and open wire
international: microwave radio relay links to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 3, FM 2, shortwave 0 (2001)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
196,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
1 (government-owned) (1997)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
5,000 (2000)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.gm
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
2 (2001)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
5,000 (2001)
   Transportation    Gambia, The
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,700 km
paved: 956 km
unpaved: 1,744 km (1996)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
400 km
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Banjul
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
none (2002 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2001)
   Military    Gambia, The
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Gambian National Army (GNA) (includes marine unit), National Police, Presidential Guard
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 327,677 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 165,249 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$1.2 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
0.3% (FY01)
   Transnational Issues    Gambia, The
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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