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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Ghana  
Flag of Ghana
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Ghana

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Ghana
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory, Ghana in 1957 became the first country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. A long series of coups resulted in the suspension of the constitution in 1981 and the banning of political parties. A new constitution, restoring multiparty politics, was approved in 1992. Lt. Jerry RAWLINGS, head of state since 1981, won presidential elections in 1992 and 1996, but was constitutionally prevented from running for a third term in 2000. He was succeeded by John KUFUOR.
   Geography    Ghana
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
8 00 N, 2 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 239,460 sq km
land: 230,940 sq km
water: 8,520 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,094 km
border countries: Burkina Faso 549 km, Cote d'Ivoire 668 km, Togo 877 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
539 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
contiguous zone: 24 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: 200 NM
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Afadjato 880 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 16%
permanent crops: 7%
other: 77% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
110 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
dry, dusty, northeastern harmattan winds occur from January to March; droughts
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
recurrent drought in north severely affects agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake
   People    Ghana
Population:
Definition Field Listing
20,244,154
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 40.4% (male 4,116,600; female 4,063,654)
15-64 years: 56.1% (male 5,625,397; female 5,723,786)
65 years and over: 3.5% (male 338,352; female 376,365) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.7% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
28.08 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
10.31 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
55.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 57.06 years
female: 58.51 years (2002 est.)
male: 55.66 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.69 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.6% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
340,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
33,000 (1999 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Ghanaian(s)
adjective: Ghanaian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
black African 98.5% (major tribes - Akan 44%, Moshi-Dagomba 16%, Ewe 13%, Ga 8%, Gurma 3%, Yoruba 1%), European and other 1.5% (1998)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
indigenous beliefs 21%, Muslim 16%, Christian 63%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
English (official), African languages (including Akan, Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe, and Ga)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
male: 75.9%
female: 53.5% (1995 est.)
total population: 64.5%
People - note:
Definition Field Listing
there are 9,500 Liberians, 2,000 Sierra Leoneans, and 1,000 Togolese refugees residing in Ghana (2002)
   Government    Ghana
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Ghana
conventional short form: Ghana
former: Gold Coast
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional democracy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Accra
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
6 March 1957 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 6 March (1957)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
new constitution approved 28 April 1992
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President John Agyekum KUFUOR (since 7 January 2001); Vice President Alhaji Aliu MAHAMA (since 7 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President John Agyekum KUFUOR (since 7 January 2001); Vice President Alhaji Aliu MAHAMA (since 7 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers; president nominates members subject to approval by Parliament
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 7 and 28 December 2000 (next to be held NA December 2004)
election results: John Agyekum KUFUOR elected president in runoff election; percent of vote - John KUFUOR 56.4%, John Atta MILLS 43.6%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Parliament (200 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 7 December 2000 (next to be held NA December 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NPP 100, NDC 92, PNC 3, CPP 1, independents 4
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Convention People's Party or CPP [Nii Noi DOWUONA, general secretary]; Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere or EGLE [Owuraku AMOFA, chairman]; Great Consolidated Popular Party or GCPP [Dan LARTY]; National Convention Party or NCP [Sarpong KUMA-KUMA]; National Democratic Congress or NDC [Dr. Huudu YAHAYA, general secretary]; New Patriotic Party or NPP [Samuel Arthur ODOI-SYKES]; People's Convention Party or PCP [P. K. DONKOH-AYIFI, acting chairman]; People's Heritage Party or PHP [Emmanuel Alexander ERSKINE]; People's National Convention or PNC [Edward MAHAMA]; Reform Party [Kyeretwie OPUKU, general secretary]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, OPCW, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Alan J. KYEREMATEN
consulate(s) general: New York
FAX: [1] (202) 686-4527
telephone: [1] (202) 686-4520
chancery: 3512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Nancy J. POWELL
embassy: 6th and 10th Lanes, 798/1 Osu, Accra
mailing address: P. O. Box 194, Accra
telephone: [233] (21) 776601, 776602
FAX: [233] (21) 775747
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band
   Economy    Ghana
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Well endowed with natural resources, Ghana has roughly twice the per capita output of the poorer countries in West Africa. Even so, Ghana remains heavily dependent on international financial and technical assistance. Gold, timber, and cocoa production are major sources of foreign exchange. The domestic economy continues to revolve around subsistence agriculture, which accounts for 36% of GDP and employs 60% of the work force, mainly small landholders. Excessively expansionary monetary and fiscal policy prior to the 2000 elections led to accelerating inflation in early 2001. A depressed cocoa market and continued weak growth in non-traditional exports led to disappointing growth in 2001. Ghana opted for debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) program in 2002.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $39.4 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $1,980 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 36%
industry: 25%
services: 39% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
31.4% (1992 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 29.5% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
39.6 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
25% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
9 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 60%, industry 15%, services 25% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
20% (1997 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $1.603 billion
expenditures: $1.975 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.8% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
5.92 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 30.41%
hydro: 69.59%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
5.484 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
422 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
400 million kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cocoa, rice, coffee, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$1.94 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
gold, cocoa, timber, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, diamonds
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Togo, UK, Italy, Netherlands, Germany, US, France (1998)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$2.83 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
UK, Nigeria, US, Germany, Italy, Spain (1998)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$5.96 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$6.9 billion (1999)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
cedi (GHC)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
GHC
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
cedis per US dollar - 7,195 (January 2002), 7,170.76 (2001), 5,455.06 (2000), 2,669.30 (1999), 2,314.15 (1998), 2,050.17 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Ghana
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
240,000 (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
150,000 (2001)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: poor to fair system; Internet accessible; many rural communities not yet connected; expansion of services is underway
domestic: primarily microwave radio relay; wireless local loop has been installed
international: satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay link to Panaftel system connects Ghana to its neighbors
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 0, FM 49, shortwave 3 (2001)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
12.5 million (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
10 (2001)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
1.9 million (2001)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.gh
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
12 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
200,000 (2002)
   Transportation    Ghana
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 953 km
narrow gauge: 953 km 1.067-m gauge; undergoing major rehabilitation (2001 est.)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 38,940 km
paved: 9,346 km (including 30 km of expressways)
unpaved: 29,594 km (2001)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
1,293 km
note: Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers provide 168 km of perennial navigation for launches and lighters; Lake Volta provides 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Takoradi, Tema
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,450 GRT/22,097 DWT
ships by type: petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 5
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Brazil 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Spain 1 (2002 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
12 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 2 (2001)
   Military    Ghana
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police Force
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 5,045,355 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,799,292 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 213,237 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$35.2 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
0.7% (FY01)
   Transnational Issues    Ghana
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; major transit hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and, to a lesser extent, South American cocaine destined for Europe and the US

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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