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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Greenland  
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Greenland

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Greenland
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The world's largest non-continental island, about 84% ice-capped, Greenland was granted self-government in 1978 by the Danish parliament. The law went into effect the following year. Denmark continues to exercise control of Greenland's foreign affairs.
   Geography    Greenland
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Northern North America, island between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Canada
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
72 00 N, 40 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Arctic Region
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,166,086 sq km
land: 2,166,086 sq km (410,449 sq km ice-free, 1,755,637 sq km ice-covered) (est.)
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly more than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
44,087 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
continental shelf: 200 NM or agreed boundaries or median line
exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM or agreed boundaries or median line
territorial sea: 3 NM
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
arctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
flat to gradually sloping icecap covers all but a narrow, mountainous, barren, rocky coast
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Gunnbjorn 3,700 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
zinc, lead, iron ore, coal, molybdenum, gold, platinum, uranium, fish, seals, whales, hydropower, possible oil and gas
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
NA sq km
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
continuous permafrost over northern two-thirds of the island
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
protection of the arctic environment; preservation of the Inuit traditional way of life, including whaling and seal hunting
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
dominates North Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe; sparse population confined to small settlements along coast, but close to one-quarter of the population lives in the capital, Nuuk; world's second largest ice cap
   People    Greenland
Population:
Definition Field Listing
56,376 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 26.3% (male 7,561; female 7,284)
15-64 years: 68.1% (male 20,880; female 17,489)
65 years and over: 5.6% (male 1,442; female 1,720) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.03% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
16.27 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
7.61 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-8.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.19 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.13 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
17.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 68.69 years
female: 72.32 years (2002 est.)
male: 65.13 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.43 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
100 (1999)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Greenlander(s)
adjective: Greenlandic
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Greenlander 88% (Inuit and Greenland-born whites), Danish and others 12% (January 2000)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Evangelical Lutheran
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Greenlandic (East Inuit), Danish, English
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: NA
total population: NA%
male: NA%
female: NA%
note: similar to Denmark proper
   Government    Greenland
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Greenland
local short form: Kalaallit Nunaat
local long form: none
Dependency status:
Definition Field Listing
part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark since 1979
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary democracy within a constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Nuuk (Godthab)
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
3 districts (landsdele); Avannaa (Nordgronland), Tunu (Ostgronland), Kitaa (Vestgronland)
note: there are 18 municipalities in Greenland
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
none (part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark since 1979)
note: foreign affairs is the responsibility of Denmark, but Greenland actively participates in international agreements relating to Greenland
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
June 21 (longest day)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
5 June 1953 (Danish constitution)
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
Danish
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II of Denmark (since 14 January 1972), represented by High Commissioner Gunnar MARTENS (since NA 1995)
note: government coalition - Siumut and Atasuut Party
election results: Jonathan MOTZFELDT reelected prime minister; percent of parliamentary vote - 57.3%
head of government: Prime Minister Jonathan MOTZFELDT (since 19 September 1997)
cabinet: Home Rule Government is elected by the Parliament (Landstinget) on the basis of the strength of parties
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; high commissioner appointed by the monarch; prime minister is elected by Parliament (usually the leader of the majority party); election last held 16 February 1999 (next to be held NA February 2003)
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Parliament or Landstinget (31 seats; members are elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
note: two representatives were elected to the Danish Parliament or Folketing on 20 November 2001 (next to be held no later than November 2005); percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Siumut 1, Inuit Ataqatigiit 1
election results: percent of vote by party - Siumut 35.2%, Inuit Ataqatigiit 22.1%, Atassut Party 25.2%, Candidate's League 12.3%, independent 5.2%; seats by party - Siumut 11, Atassut 8, Inuit Ataqatigiit 7, Candidate List 4, independent 1
elections: last held on 16 February 1999 (next to be held by NA February 2003)
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
High Court or Landsret (appeals can be made to the Ostre Landsret or Eastern Division of the High Court or Supreme Court in Copenhagen)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Akulliit Party [Bjarne KREUTZMANN]; Atassut Party (Solidarity, a conservative party favoring continuing close relations with Denmark) [Daniel SKIFTE]; Inuit Ataqatigiit or IA (Eskimo Brotherhood, a leftist party favoring complete independence from Denmark rather than home rule) [Josef MOTZFELDT]; Issituup (Polar Party) [Nicolai HEINRICH]; Kattusseqatigiit (Candidate List, an independent right-of-center party with no official platform [leader NA]; Siumut (Forward Party, a social democratic party advocating more distinct Greenlandic identity and greater autonomy from Denmark) [Hans ENOKSEN]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
NC, NIB
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a large disk slightly to the hoist side of center - the top half of the disk is red, the bottom half is white
   Economy    Greenland
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
The economy remains critically dependent on exports of fish and substantial support from the Danish Government, which supplies about half of government revenues. The public sector, including publicly owned enterprises and the municipalities, plays the dominant role in the economy. Despite several interesting hydrocarbon and minerals exploration activities, it will take several years before production can materialize. Tourism is the only sector offering any near-term potential, and even this is limited due to a short season and high costs.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $1.1 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $20,000 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
1.6% (1999 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
24,500 (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
10% (2000 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $646 million
expenditures: $629 million, including capital expenditures of $85 million (1999)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
fish processing (mainly shrimp and Greenland halibut), handicrafts, hides and skins, small shipyards, mining
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
250 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 100%
note: Greenland is shifting its electricity production from fossil fuel to hydroelectric power production (2000)
hydro: 0%
other: 0%
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
232.5 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
forage crops, garden and greenhouse vegetables; sheep, reindeer; fish
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$264 million (f.o.b., 2000)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
fish and fish products 94% (prawns 63%)
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
EU (mainly Denmark) 85%, Japan 8%, US 2% (1999)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$349 million (c.i.f., 2000)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, petroleum products
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
EU (mostly Denmark), Norway, US, Canada
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$25 million (1999)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$380 million subsidy from Denmark (1999)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Danish krone (DKK)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
DKK
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Danish kroner per US dollar - 8.418 (January 2002), 8.323 (2001), 8.083 (2000), 6.976 (1999), 6.701 (1998), 6.604 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Greenland
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
25,617 (yearend 1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
12,676 (yearend 1999)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: adequate domestic and international service provided by satellite, cables and microwave radio relay; totally digitalized in 1995
domestic: microwave radio relay and satellite
international: satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 2 Americom GE-2 (all Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 5, FM 12, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
30,000 (1998 est.)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
1 publicly-owned station, some local low-power stations, and three AFRTS (US Air Force) stations (1997)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
30,000 (1998 est.)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.gl
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
1 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
17,800 (2001)
   Transportation    Greenland
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 150 km
paved: 60 km
unpaved: 90 km
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
none
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Aasiaat (Egedesminde), Ilulissat (Jakobshavn), Kangerlussuaq, Nanortalik, Narsarsuaq, Nuuk (Godthab), Qaqortoq (Julianehab), Sisimiut (Holsteinsborg), Tasiilaq (March 2001)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,289 GRT/1,500 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1, passenger 1, includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Denmark 1 (2002 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
15 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 9
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 5 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 2 (2001)
   Military    Greenland
Military - note:
Definition Field Listing
defense is the responsibility of Denmark
   Transnational Issues    Greenland
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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