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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Hong Kong  
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Hong Kong

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Hong Kong
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Occupied by the UK in 1841, Hong Kong was formally ceded by China the following year; various adjacent lands were added later in the 19th century. Pursuant to an agreement signed by China and the UK on 19 December 1984, Hong Kong became the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China on 1 July 1997. In this agreement, China has promised that, under its "one country, two systems" formula, China's socialist economic system will not be imposed on Hong Kong and that Hong Kong will enjoy a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign and defense affairs for the next 50 years.
   Geography    Hong Kong
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
22 15 N, 114 10 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Southeast Asia
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,092 sq km
water: 50 sq km
land: 1,042 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
six times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 30 km
border countries: China 30 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
733 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 3 NM
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Tai Mo Shan 958 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
outstanding deepwater harbor, feldspar
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 5%
other: 94% (1998 est.)
permanent crops: 1%
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
20 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
occasional typhoons
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air and water pollution from rapid urbanization
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Marine Dumping (associate member), Ship Pollution (associate member)
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
more than 200 islands
   People    Hong Kong
Population:
Definition Field Listing
7,303,334 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 17.5% (male 679,311; female 599,811)
15-64 years: 71.6% (male 2,587,509; female 2,641,418)
65 years and over: 10.9% (male 364,864; female 430,421) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.26% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
10.92 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
6.11 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
7.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
5.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 79.8 years
female: 82.69 years (2002 est.)
male: 77.1 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.3 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.06% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
2,500 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
less than 100 (1999 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Chinese
adjective: Chinese
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Chinese 95%, other 5%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
eclectic mixture of local religions 90%, Christian 10%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Chinese (Cantonese), English; both are official
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 92.2%
male: 96%
female: 88.2% (1996 est.)
   Government    Hong Kong
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
conventional short form: Hong Kong
local short form: Xianggang
local long form: Xianggang Tebie Xingzhengqu
abbreviation: HK
Dependency status:
Definition Field Listing
special administrative region of China
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
none (special administrative region of China)
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
none (special administrative region of China)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
National Day (Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949); note - 1 July 1997 is celebrated as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Establishment Day
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
Basic Law approved in March 1990 by China's National People's Congress is Hong Kong's "mini-constitution"
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
direct election 18 years of age; universal for permanent residents living in the territory of Hong Kong for the past seven years; indirect election limited to about 100,000 members of functional constituencies and an 800-member election committee drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, and central government bodies
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President of China JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993)
head of government: Chief Executive TUNG Chee-hwa (since 1 July 1997)
cabinet: Executive Council consists of three ex-officio members and 10 appointed members; ex-officio members are: Chief Secretary Donald TSANG Yam-kuen (since 1 May 2001), Financial Secretary Antony LEUNG (since 1 May 2001), and Secretary of Justice Elsie LEUNG (since 1 July 1997)
elections: NA
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Legislative Council or LEGCO (60 seats; 30 indirectly elected by functional constituencies, 24 elected by popular vote, and 6 elected by an 800-member election committee; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 10 September 2000 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Democratic Party 12, Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong 10, Liberal Party 7, Frontier Party 5, Hong Kong Progressive Alliance 4, New Century Forum 2, Hong Kong Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood 1, independents 19
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
The Court of Final Appeal in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood [Frederick FUNG Kin-kee, chairman]; Citizens Party [Alex CHAN Kai-chung]; Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong [Jasper TSANG Yok-sing, chairman]; Democratic Party [Martin LEE Chu-ming, chairman]; Frontier Party [Emily LAU Wai-hing, chairwoman]; Hong Kong Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood [leader NA]; Hong Kong Progressive Alliance [Ambrose LAU Hon-chuen]; Liberal Party [James TIEN Pei-chun, chairman]; New Century Forum [NQ Ching-fai, chairman]
note: political blocs include: pro-democracy - Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood, Citizens Party, Democratic Party, Frontier Party; pro-Beijing - Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Progressive Alliance, Liberal Party, New Century Forum
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Chinese General Chamber of Commerce (pro-China); Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong; Confederation of Trade Unions (pro-democracy) [LAU Chin-shek, president; LEE Cheuk-yan, general secretary]; Federation of Hong Kong Industries; Federation of Trade Unions (pro-China) [LEE Chark-tim, president]; Hong Kong Alliance in Support of the Patriotic Democratic Movement in China [Szeto WAH, chairman]; Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade Union Council (pro-Taiwan); Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce; Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union [CHEUNG Man-kwong, president]; Liberal Democratic Federation [HU Fa-kuang, chairman]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
APEC, AsDB, BIS, CCC, ESCAP (associate), ICC, ICFTU, IHO, IMO (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, ISO (correspondent), WCL, WMO, WToO (associate), WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
none (special administrative region of China)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Consul General Michael KLOSSON
consulate(s) general: 26 Garden Road, Hong Kong
mailing address: PSC 464, Box 30, FPO AP 96522-0002
telephone: [852] 2523-9011
FAX: [852] 2845-1598
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
red with a stylized, white, five-petal bauhinia flower in the center
   Economy    Hong Kong
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Hong Kong has a bustling free market economy highly dependent on international trade. Natural resources are limited, and food and raw materials must be imported. Indeed, imports and exports, including reexports, each exceed GDP in dollar value. Even before Hong Kong reverted to Chinese administration on 1 July 1997 it had extensive trade and investment ties with China. Per capita GDP compares with the level in the four big economies of Western Europe. GDP growth averaged a strong 5% in 1989-97. The widespread Asian economic difficulties in 1998 hit this trade-dependent economy quite hard, with GDP down 5%. The economy, with growth of 10% in 2000, recovered rapidly from the Asian financial crisis. The recent global downturn has badly hurt Hong Kong's exports and GDP growth is estimated to be 0% in 2001. Private sector analysts project 2002 GDP growth to be 1.8%.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $180 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $25,000 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 0.1%
industry: 14.3%
services: 85.6% (1999 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
-1.6% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
3.44 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
wholesale and retail trade, restaurants, and hotels 31%, financing, insurance, and real estate 13%, community and social services 11%, manufacturing 7%, transport and communications 6%, construction 2%, other 30% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
5.2% (2001 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $22.9 billion
expenditures: $24.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $465 million (FY00/01)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
textiles, clothing, tourism, banking, shipping, electronics, plastics, toys, watches, clocks
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-9% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
29.449 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
35,401.57 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
1.181 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
9.195 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
fresh vegetables; poultry, fish, pork
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$191 billion (including reexports; f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
clothing, textiles, footwear, electrical appliances, watches and clocks, toys, plastics, precious stones
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
China 34%, US 23%, Japan 6%, Germany 4%, UK 4%, Taiwan 3%, Singapore 2% (2000)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$203 billion (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
foodstuffs, transport equipment, raw materials, semimanufactures, petroleum, plastics, machinery, electrical equipment; a large share is reexported
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
China 43%, Japan 12%, Taiwan 8%, US 7%, South Korea 5%, Singapore 3% (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$58.8 billion (2001 est.)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Hong Kong dollar (HKD)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
HKD
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Hong Kong dollars per US dollar - 7.798 (January 2002), 7.7994 (2001), 7.7918 (2000), 7.7589 (1999), 7.7462 (1998), 7.7425 (1997); note - the Hong Kong dollar is linked to the US dollar at a rate of about 7.8 Hong Kong dollars per US dollar
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 April - 31 March
   Communications    Hong Kong
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
3.839 million (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
3.7 million (December 1999)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: modern facilities provide excellent domestic and international services
domestic: microwave radio relay links and extensive fiber-optic network
international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Pacific Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); coaxial cable to Guangzhou, China; access to 5 international submarine cables providing connections to ASEAN member nations, Japan, Taiwan, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 7, FM 13, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
4.45 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
4 (plus two repeaters) (1997)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
1.84 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.hk
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
17 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
3.93 million (2001)
   Transportation    Hong Kong
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 34 km
standard gauge: 34 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified and double-tracked)
note: connects to China railway system at Hong Kong-China border (2001)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,831 km
paved: 1,831 km
unpaved: 0 km (1997)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
none
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Hong Kong
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 433 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 13,539,257 GRT/22,682,757 DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk 264, cargo 38, chemical tanker 10, combination bulk 2, container 73, liquefied gas 8, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, petroleum tanker 32, refrigerated cargo 1, short-sea passenger 1, vehicle carrier 2
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Belgium 5, Belize 1, British Virgin Islands 1, China 115, Denmark 2, Germany 19, Greece 2, India 8, Japan 8, Liberia 1, Malaysia 7, Norway 1, Panama 2, Philippines 5, Singapore 7, South Korea 2, Taiwan 1, United Kingdom 27, Virgin Islands (UK) 1 (2002 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
3 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2001)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
2 (2001)
   Military    Hong Kong
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
no regular indigenous military forces; Hong Kong garrison of China's People's Liberation Army (PLA) including elements of the PLA Ground Forces, PLA Navy, and PLA Air Force; these forces are under the direct leadership of the Central Military Commission in Beijing and under administrative control of the adjacent Guangzhou Military Region
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,028,208 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,523,378 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 47,139 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Military - note:
Definition Field Listing
defense is the responsibility of China
   Transnational Issues    Hong Kong
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
strenuous law enforcement efforts, but faces serious challenges in controlling transit of heroin and methamphetamine to regional and world markets; money laundering center; rising indigenous use of synthetic drugs, especially among young people

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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