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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Jamaica  
Flag of Jamaica
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Jamaica

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Jamaica
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Jamaica gained full independence within the British Commonwealth in 1962. Deteriorating economic conditions during the 1970s led to recurrent violence and a dropoff in tourism. Elections in 1980 saw the democratic socialists voted out of office. Subsequent governments have been open market oriented. Political violence marred elections during the 1990s.
   Geography    Jamaica
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, south of Cuba
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
18 15 N, 77 30 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 10,991 sq km
land: 10,831 sq km
water: 160 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
1,022 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: 200 NM or to edge of the continental margin
contiguous zone: 24 NM
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly mountains, with narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Blue Mountain Peak 2,256 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
bauxite, gypsum, limestone
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 16%
permanent crops: 9%
other: 75% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
250 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
hurricanes (especially July to November)
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
heavy rates of deforestation; coastal waters polluted by industrial waste, sewage, and oil spills; damage to coral reefs; air pollution in Kingston results from vehicle emissions
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamaica Channel, the main sea lanes for the Panama Canal
   People    Jamaica
Population:
Definition Field Listing
2,680,029 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 29.1% (male 399,249; female 380,864)
15-64 years: 64.1% (male 858,433; female 859,174)
65 years and over: 6.8% (male 81,321; female 100,988) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.56% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
17.74 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
5.45 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-6.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
13.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 75.64 years
female: 77.73 years (2002 est.)
male: 73.65 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.05 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.71% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
9,900 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
650 (1999 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Jamaican(s)
adjective: Jamaican
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
black 90.9%, East Indian 1.3%, white 0.2%, Chinese 0.2%, mixed 7.3%, other 0.1%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Protestant 61.3% (Church of God 21.2%, Baptist 8.8%, Anglican 5.5%, Seventh-Day Adventist 9%, Pentecostal 7.6%, Methodist 2.7%, United Church 2.7%, Brethren 1.1%, Jehovah's Witness 1.6%, Moravian 1.1%), Roman Catholic 4%, other, including some spiritual cults 34.7%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
English, patois English
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 85%
male: 80.8%
female: 89.1% (1995 est.)
   Government    Jamaica
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Jamaica
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Kingston
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
14 parishes; Clarendon, Hanover, Kingston, Manchester, Portland, Saint Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint Catherine, Saint Elizabeth, Saint James, Saint Mary, Saint Thomas, Trelawny, Westmoreland
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
6 August 1962 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, first Monday in August (1962)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
6 August 1962
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Howard Felix COOKE (since 1 August 1991)
head of government: Prime Minister Percival James PATTERSON (since 30 March 1992) and Deputy Prime Minister Seymour MULLINGS (since NA 1993)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (a 21-member body appointed by the governor general on the recommendations of the prime minister and the leader of the opposition; ruling party is allocated 13 seats, and the opposition is allocated eight seats) and the House of Representatives (60 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 18 December 1997 (next to be held by March 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PNP 50, JLP 10
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (judges appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister); Court of Appeal
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Jamaica Labor Party or JLP [Edward SEAGA]; National Democratic Movement or NDM [Bruce GOLDING]; People's National Party or PNP [Percival James PATTERSON]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
New Beginnings Movement or NBM; Rastafarians (black religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists)
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACP, C, Caricom, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Seymour MULLINGS
consulate(s) general: Miami and New York
FAX: [1] (202) 452-0081
telephone: [1] (202) 452-0660
chancery: 1520 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Sue McCourt COBB
embassy: Jamaica Mutual Life Center, 2 Oxford Road, 3rd floor, Kingston 5
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [1] (876) 929-4850 through 4859
FAX: [1] (876) 926-6743
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four triangles - green (top and bottom) and black (hoist side and outer side)
   Economy    Jamaica
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
The economy, which depends heavily on tourism and bauxite, has been stagnant since 1995. After five years of recession, the economy grew 0.8% in 2000 and 1.1% in 2001, but the global economic slowdown, particularly in the United States after the 11 September terrorist attacks, has stunted the economic recovery. Serious problems include: high interest rates; increased foreign competition; a pressured, sometimes sliding, exchange rate; a widening merchandise trade deficit; and a growing internal debt, the result of government bailouts to various ailing sectors of the economy, particularly the financial sector. Depressed economic conditions have led to increased civil unrest, including a mounting crime rate. Jamaica's medium-term prospects will depend upon encouraging investment, maintaining a competitive exchange rate, selling off reacquired firms, and implementing proper fiscal and monetary policies.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $9.8 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.1% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $3,700 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 7%
industry: 28%
services: 65% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
34.2% (1992 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 28.9% (1996)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
36.4 (1996)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
6.9% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
1.13 million (1998)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
services 60%, agriculture 21%, industry 19% (1998)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
16% (2000 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $2.23 billion
expenditures: $2.56 billion, including capital expenditures of $232.5 million (FY99/00 est.)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
tourism, bauxite, textiles, food processing, light manufactures, rum, cement, metal, paper, chemical products
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-2% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
6.74 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 89.44%
hydro: 3.22%
other: 7.34% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
6.27 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
sugarcane, bananas, coffee, citrus, potatoes, vegetables; poultry, goats, milk
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$1.6 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
alumina, bauxite; sugar, bananas, rum
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 35.7%, EU (excluding UK) 15.9%, UK 13%, Canada 10.5% (1999)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$3.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, fuel, food, chemicals, fertilizers
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 47.8%, Caricom countries 12.4%, Latin America 7.2%, EU (excluding UK) 4.7% (1999)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$5.2 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$102.7 million (1995)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Jamaican dollar (JMD)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
JMD
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Jamaican dollars per US dollar - 47.277 (December 2001), 45.996 (2001), 42.701 (2000), 39.044 (1999), 36.550 (1998), 35.404 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 April - 31 March
   Communications    Jamaica
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
353,000 (1996)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
54,640 (1996)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: fully automatic domestic telephone network
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); 3 coaxial submarine cables
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 10, FM 13, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
1.215 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
7 (1997)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
460,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.jm
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
21 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
60,000 (2000)
   Transportation    Jamaica
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 272 km
standard gauge: 272 km 1.435-m gauge; note - 207 km, belonging to the Jamaica Railway Corporation, were in common carrier service but are no longer operational; the remaining track is privately owned and used to transport bauxite (2000)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 19,000 km
paved: 13,433 km
unpaved: 5,567 km (1997)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
none
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum products 10 km
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Alligator Pond, Discovery Bay, Kingston, Montego Bay, Ocho Rios, Port Antonio, Rocky Point, Port Esquivel (Longswharf)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 21,954 GRT/25,250 DWT
ships by type: petroleum tanker 1, includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Latvia 2, United States 2 (2002 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
35 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 5 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 24
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 22 (2001)
   Military    Jamaica
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Jamaica Defense Force (including Ground Forces, Coast Guard, and Air Wing), Jamaica Constabulary Force
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 747,043 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 523,550 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 27,729 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$30 million (FY95/96 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
   Transnational Issues    Jamaica
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
major transshipment point for cocaine from South America to North America and Europe; illicit cultivation of cannabis; government has an active manual cannabis eradication program; corruption is a major concern

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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