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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Lithuania  
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Lithuania

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Lithuania
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Independent between the two World Wars, Lithuania was annexed by the USSR in 1940. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but this proclamation was not generally recognized until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently has restructured its economy for eventual integration into Western European institutions.
   Geography    Lithuania
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
56 00 N, 24 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 65,200 sq km
water: NA sq km
land: NA sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,273 km
border countries: Belarus 502 km, Latvia 453 km, Poland 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad) 227 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
99 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 NM
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Juozapines/Kalnas 292 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
peat, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 45%
permanent crops: 1%
other: 54% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
90 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits
   People    Lithuania
Population:
Definition Field Listing
3,601,138 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 18.2% (male 333,966; female 319,992)
15-64 years: 68% (male 1,184,969; female 1,265,711)
65 years and over: 13.8% (male 167,789; female 328,711) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.25% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
10.22 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
12.87 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.51 male(s)/female
total population: 0.88 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
14.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 69.42 years
female: 75.6 years (2002 est.)
male: 63.54 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.4 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.02% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
less than 500 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
less than 100 (1999 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Lithuanian(s)
adjective: Lithuanian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Lithuanian 80.6%, Russian 8.7%, Polish 7%, Belarusian 1.6%, other 2.1%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic (primarily), Lutheran, Russian Orthodox, Protestant, Evangelical Christian Baptist, Muslim, Jewish
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Lithuanian (official), Polish, Russian
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 98% (1989 est.)
   Government    Lithuania
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania
conventional short form: Lithuania
local short form: Lietuva
former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
local long form: Lietuvos Respublika
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Vilnius
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
10 counties (apskritys, singular - apskritis); Alytaus, Kauno, Klaipedos, Marijampoles, Panevezio, Siauliu, Taurages, Telsiu, Utenos, Vilniaus
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
11 March 1990 (independence declared from Soviet Union); 6 September 1991 (Soviet Union recognizes Lithuania's independence)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 16 February (1918); note - 16 February 1918 is the date of independence from German, Austrian, Prussian, and Russian occupation, 11 March 1990 is the date of independence from the Soviet Union
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
adopted 25 October 1992
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system; legislative acts can be appealed to the constitutional court
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Valdas ADAMKUS (since 26 February 1998)
head of government: Premier Algirdas Mykolas BRAZAUSKAS (since 3 July 2001)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the premier
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 21 December 1997 and 4 January 1998 (next to be held in late 2002); premier appointed by the president on the approval of the Parliament
election results: Valdas ADAMKUS elected president; percent of vote - Valdas ADAMKUS 50.4%, Arturas PAULAUSKAS 49.6%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats, 71 members are directly elected by popular vote, 70 are elected by proportional representation; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 8 October 2000 (next to be held NA October 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - Social Democratic Coalition 31.1%, New Union-Social Liberals 19.6%, Liberal Union 17.2%, TS 8.6%, remaining parties all less than 5%; seats by party - Social Democratic Coalition 52, Liberal Union 34, New Union-Social Liberals 29, TS 9, Farmer's Party 4, Center Union 2, Poles' Electoral Action 2, Modern Christian Democratic Union 1, independents 3, others 5
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; judges for all courts appointed by the President
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Christian Democratic Party or LKDP [Kazys BOBELIS, chairman]; Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles [Valdemar TOMASZEVSKI, chairman]; Homeland Union/Conservative Party or TS [Vytautas LANDSBERGIS, chairman]; Lithuanian Center Union or LCS [Kestutis GLAVECKAS, chairman]; Lithuanian Farmer's Party or LUP [Ramunas KARBAUSKIS, chairman]; Lithuanian Green Party [Rimantas BRAZIULIS]; Lithuanian Liberal Union [Eugenijus GENTVILAS, chairman]; Lithuanian Liberal Youth [Neringa MOROZAITE]; Lithuanian National Democratic Party [Vygintas GONTIS]; Lithuanian Social Democratic Coalition [Algirdas BRAZAUSKAS, chairman] consists of the Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party or LDDP, the Lithuanian Social Democratic Party or LSPD, and New Democracy; Moderate Conservative Union [Gediminas VAGNORIUS]; Modern Christian Democratic Union [Vytautas BOGUSIS, chairman]; New Democracy and Farmer's Union [Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE, chairman]; New Union-Social Liberals [Arturas PAULAUSKAS, chairman]; Young Lithuania [Arnoldas PLATELIS]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT (observer), BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Vygaudas USACKAS
consulate(s) general: Chicago and New York
FAX: [1] (202) 328-0466
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5860
chancery: 2622 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador John F. TEFFT
embassy: Akmenu 6, 2600 Vilnius
mailing address: American Embassy, Vilnius, PSC 78, Box V, APO AE 09723
telephone: [370] (2) 665-500
FAX: [370] (2) 665-510
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red
   Economy    Lithuania
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Lithuania, the Baltic state that has conducted the most trade with Russia, has been slowly rebounding from the 1998 Russian financial crisis. High unemployment, at 12.5% in 2001, and weak consumption have held back recovery. Trade has been increasingly oriented toward the West. Lithuania has gained membership in the World Trade Organization and has moved ahead with plans to join the EU. Privatization of the large, state-owned utilities, particularly in the energy sector, is underway.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $27.4 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
4.8% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $7,600 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 9%
industry: 32%
services: 59% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3.1%
highest 10%: 25.6% (1996)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
34 (1999)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
1.3% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
1.5 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
industry 30%, agriculture 20%, services 50% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
12.5% (2001 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $1.59 billion
expenditures: $1.77 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic components, computers, amber
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
15% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
10.966 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 20.16%
hydro: 3.06%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 76.78%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
6.898 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
6.3 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
3 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
grain, potatoes, sugar beets, flax, vegetables; beef, milk, eggs; fish
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$4.8 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
mineral products 21%, textiles and clothing 19%, machinery and equipment 11%, chemicals 8%, wood and wood products 6%, foodstuffs 4% (2000)
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Latvia 15%, Germany 14%, UK 8%, Russia 7%, Ukraine 5% (2000)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$5.7 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
mineral products 23%, machinery and equipment 16%, chemicals 9%, textiles and clothing 9%, transport equipment 9% (2000)
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Russia 28%, Germany 15%, Poland 5%, France 4%, UK 4% (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$3.6 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$228.5 million (1995)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
litas (LTL)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
LTL
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
litai per US dollar - 4.000 (fixed rate since 1 May 1994); note - litai is the plural of litas; effective 2 February 2002 the litas are pegged to the euro
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Lithuania
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
1.142 million (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
500,000 (2001)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: inadequate, but is being modernized to provide an improved international capability and better residential access
domestic: a national, fiber-optic cable, interurban, trunk system is nearing completion; rural exchanges are being improved and expanded; mobile cellular systems are being installed; access to the Internet is available; still many unsatisfied telephone subscriber applications
international: landline connections to Latvia and Poland; major international connections to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by submarine cable for further transmission by satellite
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 29, FM 142, shortwave 1 (2001)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
1.9 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
27
note: Lithuania has approximately 27 broadcasting stations, but may have as many as 100 transmitters, including repeater stations (2001)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
1.7 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.lt
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
32 (2001)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
341,000 (2001)
   Transportation    Lithuania
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,998 km
broad gauge: 1,807 km 1.524-m gauge (122 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 169 km 0.750-m gauge (2001)
standard gauge: 22 km 1.435-m gauge
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 44,000 km
paved: 35,500 km
unpaved: 8,500 km (2001)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
600 km (perennially navigable)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
crude oil, 105 km; natural gas 760 km (1992)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Butinge, Kaunas, Klaipeda
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 279,743 GRT/304,156 DWT
ships by type: cargo 25, combination bulk 8, petroleum tanker 2, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 6, roll on/roll off 2, short-sea passenger 3
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Denmark 13 (2002 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
72 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 9
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
under 914 m: 3 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 63
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 55 (2001)
   Military    Lithuania
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Force, National Volunteer Defense Forces (SKAT)
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 933,638 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 733,415 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 28,506 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$230.8 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
1.9% (FY01)
   Transnational Issues    Lithuania
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
the Russian Duma has not ratified 1997 boundary treaty; the Latvian Parliament has not ratified its 1998 maritime boundary treaty with Lithuania, primarily due to concerns over oil exploration rights
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs from Southwest Asia, Latin America, and Western Europe to Western Europe and Scandinavia; limited production of methamphetamine and ecstasy

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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