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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Liechtenstein  
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Liechtenstein

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Liechtenstein
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The Principality of Liechtenstein was established within the Holy Roman Empire in 1719; it became a sovereign state in 1806. Until the end of World War I, it was closely tied to Austria, but the economic devastation caused by that conflict forced Liechtenstein to conclude a customs and monetary union with Switzerland. Since World War II (in which Liechtenstein remained neutral) the country's low taxes have spurred outstanding economic growth. However, shortcomings in banking regulatory oversight have resulted in concerns about the use of the financial institutions for money laundering.
   Geography    Liechtenstein
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Central Europe, between Austria and Switzerland
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
47 10 N, 9 32 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 160 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 160 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 76 km
border countries: Austria 35 km, Switzerland 41 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (doubly landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Ruggeller Riet 430 m
highest point: Grauspitz 2,599 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
hydroelectric potential, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 25%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 75% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
NA sq km
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
along with Uzbekistan, one of only two doubly landlocked countries in the world; variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation
   People    Liechtenstein
Population:
Definition Field Listing
32,842 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 18.3% (male 3,003; female 3,001)
15-64 years: 70.5% (male 11,530; female 11,639)
65 years and over: 11.2% (male 1,494; female 2,175) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.94% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
11.24 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
6.76 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
4.93 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
4.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 79.1 years
female: 82.74 years (2002 est.)
male: 75.47 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.5 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Liechtensteiner(s)
adjective: Liechtenstein
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Alemannic 87.5%, Italian, Turkish, and other 12.5%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 80%, Protestant 7.4%, unknown 7.7%, other 4.9% (1996)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
German (official), Alemannic dialect
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (1981 est.)
   Government    Liechtenstein
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Principality of Liechtenstein
conventional short form: Liechtenstein
local short form: Liechtenstein
local long form: Fuerstentum Liechtenstein
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
hereditary constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Vaduz
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
11 communes (Gemeinden, singular - Gemeinde); Balzers, Eschen, Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan, Schellenberg, Triesen, Triesenberg, Vaduz
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
23 January 1719 Imperial Principality of Liechtenstein established; 12 July 1806 established independence from the Holy Roman Empire
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Assumption Day, 15 August
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
5 October 1921
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
local civil and penal codes; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
20 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Prince HANS ADAM II (since 13 November 1989, assumed executive powers 26 August 1984); Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS, son of the monarch (born 11 June 1968)
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the Diet is usually appointed the head of government by the monarch and the leader of the largest minority party in the Diet is usually appointed the deputy head of government by the monarch
cabinet: Cabinet elected by the Diet, confirmed by the monarch
head of government: Head of Government Otmar HASLER (since 5 April 2001) and Deputy Head of Government Rita KIEBER-BECK (since 5 April 2001)
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Diet or Landtag (25 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote under proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
election results: percent of vote by party - FBP 49.90%, VU 41.35%, FL 8.71%; seats by party - FBP 13, VU 11, FL 1
elections: last held 11 February 2001 (next to be held by NA 2005)
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Superior Court or Obergericht
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Fatherland Union or VU [Heinz FROMMELT]; Progressive Citizens' Party or FBP [Johannes MATT]; The Free List or FL [Dr. Pepo FRICK, Karin JENNY, Rene HASLER]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
CE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, IAEA, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WCL, WHO (observer), WIPO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Claudia FRITSCHE
chancery: 633 Third Avenue, 27th floor, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 599-0220
FAX: [1] (212) 599-0064
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
the US does not have an embassy in Liechtenstein, but the US Ambassador to Switzerland is also accredited to Liechtenstein
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a gold crown on the hoist side of the blue band
   Economy    Liechtenstein
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Despite its small size and limited natural resources, Liechtenstein has developed into a prosperous, highly industrialized, free-enterprise economy with a vital financial service sector and living standards on a par with the urban areas of its large European neighbors. Low business taxes - the maximum tax rate is 18% - and easy incorporation rules have induced 73,700 holding or so-called letter box companies to establish nominal offices in Liechtenstein, providing 30% of state revenues. The country participates in a customs union with Switzerland and uses the Swiss franc as its national currency. It imports more than 90% of its energy requirements. Liechtenstein has been a member of the European Economic Area (an organization serving as a bridge between European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and EU) since May 1995. The government is working to harmonize its economic policies with those of an integrated Europe.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $730 million (1998 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $23,000 (1998 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
1% (2001)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
22,891 of which 13,847 are foreigners; 8,231 commute from Austria and Switzerland to work each day
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
industry, trade, and building 45%, services 53%, agriculture, fishing, forestry, and horticulture 2% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.8% (February 1999)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $424.2 million
expenditures: $414.1 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
electronics, metal manufacturing, textiles, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: NA%
other: NA%
hydro: NA%
nuclear: NA%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
NA kWh
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
NA kWh
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
NA kWh
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
wheat, barley, corn, potatoes; livestock, dairy products
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$2.47 billion (1996)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
small specialty machinery, dental products, stamps, hardware, pottery
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
EU and EFTA countries 60.57% (Switzerland 15.7%) (1995)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$917.3 million (1996)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, motor vehicles
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
EU countries, Switzerland (1996)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$0 (1996)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
none
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Swiss franc (CHF)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
CHF
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Swiss francs per US dollar - 1.6668 (January 2002), 1.6876 (2001), 1.6888 (2000), 1.5022 (1999), 1.4498 (1998), 1.4513 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Liechtenstein
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
20,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: automatic telephone system
domestic: NA
international: linked to Swiss networks by cable and microwave radio relay
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 0, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
21,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
NA (linked to Swiss networks) (1997)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
12,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.li
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
44 (Liechtenstein and Switzerland) (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
NA
   Transportation    Liechtenstein
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 18.5 km
standard gauge: 18.5 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified)
note: owned, operated, and included in statistics of Austrian Federal Railways (2001)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 250 km
paved: 250 km
unpaved: 0 km
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
none
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
none
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
none (2001)
   Military    Liechtenstein
Military - note:
Definition Field Listing
defense is the responsibility of Switzerland
   Transnational Issues    Liechtenstein
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Liechtenstein's royal family claims restitution for 1,600 sq km of land in the Czech Republic confiscated in 1918
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
multilateral organizations engaged in issuing international guidelines for financial sector oversight found gaps in Liechtenstein's financial services controls that made it vulnerable to money laundering, but Liechtenstein has become less attractive as a haven for illicit funds, based on implementation in 2001 of new anti-money-laundering legislation and improved mutual legal assistance cooperation with other countries

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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