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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Lesotho  
Flag of Lesotho
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Lesotho

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Lesotho
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Basutoland was renamed the Kingdom of Lesotho upon independence from the UK in 1966. King MOSHOESHOE was exiled in 1990. Constitutional government was restored in 1993 after 23 years of military rule.
   Geography    Lesotho
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southern Africa, an enclave of South Africa
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
29 30 S, 28 30 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 30,355 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 30,355 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 909 km
border countries: South Africa 909 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
temperate; cool to cold, dry winters; hot, wet summers
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly highland with plateaus, hills, and mountains
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: junction of the Orange and Makhaleng Rivers 1,400 m
highest point: Thabana Ntlenyana 3,482 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
water, agricultural and grazing land, some diamonds and other minerals
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 11%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 89% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
10 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
periodic droughts
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
population pressure forcing settlement in marginal areas results in overgrazing, severe soil erosion, and soil exhaustion; desertification; Highlands Water Project controls, stores, and redirects water to South Africa
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked, completely surrounded by South Africa; mountainous, more than 80% of the country is 1,800 meters above sea level
   People    Lesotho
Population:
Definition Field Listing
2,207,954
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 39% (male 433,229; female 427,926)
15-64 years: 56.3% (male 600,476; female 642,538)
65 years and over: 4.7% (male 43,691; female 60,094) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.33% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
30.72 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
16.81 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
82.57 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 47 years
female: 47.8 years (2002 est.)
male: 46.3 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
4.01 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
23.57% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
240,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
16,000 (1999 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Mosotho (singular), Basotho (plural)
adjective: Basotho
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Sotho 99.7%, Europeans, Asians, and other 0.3%,
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Christian 80%, indigenous beliefs 20%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Sesotho (southern Sotho), English (official), Zulu, Xhosa
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83%
male: 72%
female: 93% (1999 est.)
   Government    Lesotho
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Kingdom of Lesotho
conventional short form: Lesotho
former: Basutoland
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Maseru
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
10 districts; Berea, Butha-Buthe, Leribe, Mafeteng, Maseru, Mohales Hoek, Mokhotlong, Qacha's Nek, Quthing, Thaba-Tseka
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
4 October 1966 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 4 October (1966)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
2 April 1993
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law and Roman-Dutch law; judicial review of legislative acts in High Court and Court of Appeal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: King LETSIE III (since 7 February 1996); note - King LETSIE III formerly occupied the throne from November 1990 to February 1995, while his father was in exile
head of government: Prime Minister Pakalitha MOSISILI (since 23 May 1998)
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: none; according to the constitution, the leader of the majority party in the Assembly automatically becomes prime minister; the monarch is hereditary, but, under the terms of the constitution which came into effect after the March 1993 election, the monarch is a "living symbol of national unity" with no executive or legislative powers; under traditional law the college of chiefs has the power to determine who is next in the line of succession, who shall serve as regent in the event that the successor is not of mature age, and may even depose the monarch
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (33 members - 22 principal chiefs and 11 other members appointed by the ruling party) and the Assembly (120 seats, 80 by direct popular vote and 40 by proportional vote; members elected by popular vote for five-year terms); note - number of seats in the Assembly rose from 80 to 120 in the May 2002 election
elections: last held NA May 2002 (next to be held NA May 2007)
election results: percent of vote by party - LCD 54%, BNP 21%, LPC 7%, other 18%; seats by party - LCD 76, BNP 21, LPC 5, other 18
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
High Court (chief justice appointed by the monarch); Court of Appeal; Magistrate's Court; customary or traditional court
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Basotho Congress Party or BCP [Tseliso MAKHAKHE]; Basotho National Party or BNP [Maj. Gen. Justine Metsing LEKHANYA]; Lesotho Congress for Democracy or LCD [Phebe MOTEBANO, chairwoman; Pakalitha MOSISILI, leader] - the governing party; Lesotho People's Congress or LPC [Kelebone MAOPE]; United Democratic Party or UDP [Charles MOFELI]; Marematlou Freedom Party or MFP and Setlamo Alliance [Vincent MALEBO]; Progressive National Party or PNP [Chief Peete Nkoebe PEETE]; Sefate Democratic Party or SDP [Bofihla NKUEBE]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Molelekeng Ernestina RAPOLAKI
FAX: [1] (202) 234-6815
telephone: [1] (202) 797-5533 through 5536
chancery: 2511 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert G. LOFTIS
embassy: 254 Kingsway, Maseru West (Consular Section)
mailing address: P. O. Box 333, Maseru 100, Lesotho
telephone: [266] 312666
FAX: [266] 310116
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper half is white, bearing the brown silhouette of a large shield with crossed spear and club; the lower half is a diagonal blue band with a green triangle in the corner
   Economy    Lesotho
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Small, landlocked, and mountainous, Lesotho's primary natural resource is water. Its economy is based on subsistence agriculture, livestock, remittances from miners employed in South Africa, and a rapidly growing apparel-assembly sector. The number of mineworkers has declined steadily over the past several years. A small manufacturing base depends largely on farm products that support the milling, canning, leather, and jute industries. Agricultural products are exported primarily to South Africa. Proceeds from membership in a common customs union with South Africa form the majority of government revenue. Although drought has decreased agricultural activity over the past few years, completion of a major hydropower facility in January 1998 now permits the sale of water to South Africa, generating royalties for Lesotho. The pace of privatization has increased in recent years. In December 1999, the government embarked on a nine-month IMF staff-monitored program aimed at structural adjustment and stabilization of macroeconomic fundamentals. The government is in the process of applying for a three-year successor program with the IMF under its Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility. Lesotho has a marked inequality in income distribution and serious unemployment/underemployment problems that will not yield to short-run solutions.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $5.3 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.6% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $2,450 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 18%
industry: 38%
services: 44% (2001)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
49.2% (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 0.9%
highest 10%: 43.4% (1986-87)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
56 (1986-87)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
6.9% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
700,000 economically active
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
86% of resident population engaged in subsistence agriculture; roughly 35% of the active male wage earners work in South Africa
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
45% (2000 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $76 million
expenditures: $80 million, including capital expenditures of $15 million (FY99/00 est.)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
food, beverages, textiles, apparel assembly, handicrafts; construction; tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
15.5% (1999 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh; note - electricity supplied by South Africa (2000)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
100 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
100 million kWh
note: electricity supplied by South Africa (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
corn, wheat, pulses, sorghum, barley; livestock
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$250 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
manufactures 75% (clothing, footwear, road vehicles), wool and mohair, food and live animals
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
South African Customs Union 53.9%, North America 45.6% (1999)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$720 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
food; building materials, vehicles, machinery, medicines, petroleum products
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
South African Customs Union 89.5%, Asia 7% (1999)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$715 million (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$123.7 million (1995)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
loti (LSL); South African rand (ZAR)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
LSL; ZAR
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
maloti per US dollar - 11.58786 (January 2002), 8.60918 (2001), 6.93983 (2000), 6.10948 (1999), 5.52828 (1998), 4.60796 (1997); note - the Lesotho loti is at par with the South African rand which is also legal tender; maloti is the plural form of loti
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 April - 31 March
   Communications    Lesotho
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
22,200 (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
21,600 (2000)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: rudimentary system
domestic: consists of a few landlines, a small microwave radio relay system, and a minor radiotelephone communication system
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
NA (2002)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2000)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.ls
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
1 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
4,000 (2000)
   Transportation    Lesotho
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2.6 km; note - owned by, operated by, and included in the statistics of South Africa
narrow gauge: 2.6 km 1.067-m gauge (1995)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 4,955 km
paved: 887 km
unpaved: 4,068 km (1996)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
none
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
none
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
28 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 24
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 20 (2001)
   Military    Lesotho
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Lesotho Defense Force (LDF; including Army and Air Wing), Royal Lesotho Mounted Police
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 526,332 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 283,203 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$34 million (1999)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Military - note:
Definition Field Listing
The Lesotho Government in 1999 began an open debate on the future structure, size, and role of the armed forces, especially considering the Lesotho Defense Force's (LDF) history of intervening in political affairs.
   Transnational Issues    Lesotho
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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