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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Luxembourg  
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Luxembourg

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Luxembourg
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839, but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both World Wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union) and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area.
   Geography    Luxembourg
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Western Europe, between France and Germany
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
49 45 N, 6 10 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,586 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 2,586 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Rhode Island
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 359 km
border countries: Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany 138 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
modified continental with mild winters, cool summers
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Moselle River 133 m
highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 25%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 75% (includes Belgium) (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
40 sq km (includes Belgium) (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Environmental Modification
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; the only Grand Duchy in the world, it is the smallest of the European Union member states
   People    Luxembourg
Population:
Definition Field Listing
448,569 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 18.9% (male 43,634; female 41,164)
15-64 years: 67% (male 151,364; female 149,156)
65 years and over: 14.1% (male 25,486; female 37,765) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.25% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
12.06 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
8.83 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
9.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
4.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 77.48 years
female: 80.97 years (2002 est.)
male: 74.2 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.7 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.16% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
less than 100 (1999 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Luxembourger(s)
adjective: Luxembourg
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Celtic base (with French and German blend), Portuguese, Italian, Slavs (from Montenegro, Albania, and Kososvo) and European (guest and resident workers)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
the greatest preponderance of the population is Roman Catholic with a very few Protestants, Jews, and Muslims
note: 1979 legislation forbids the collection of religious statistics
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Luxembourgish (national language), German (administrative language), French (administrative language)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (2000 est.)
   Government    Luxembourg
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
conventional short form: Luxembourg
local short form: Luxembourg
local long form: Grand Duche de Luxembourg
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Luxembourg
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
1839 (from the Netherlands)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
National Day (Birthday of Grand Duchess Charlotte) 23 June
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
17 October 1868, occasional revisions
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 November 1981)
head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Claude JUNCKER (since 1 January 1995) and Vice Prime Minister Lydie POLFER (since 7 August 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister and vice prime minister appointed by the monarch, following popular election to the Chamber of Deputies; they are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies
note: government coalition - CSV and DP
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 13 June 1999 (next to be held by June 2004)
note: there is also a Council of State that serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies; the Council of State has 21 members appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister
election results: percent of vote by party - CSV 29.79%, DP 21.58%, LSAP 23.75%, ADR 10.36%, Green Party 9.09%, the Left 3.77%; seats by party - CSV 19, DP 15, LSAP 13, ADR 6, Green Party 5, the Left 2
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
judicial courts and tribunals (3 Justices of the Peace, 2 district courts, and 1 Supreme Court of Appeals); administrative courts and tribunals (State Prosecutor's Office, administrative courts and tribunals, and the Constitutional Court); judges for all courts are appointed for life by the monarch
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Action Committee for Democracy and Justice or ADR [Robert MEHLEN]; Christian Social People's Party or CSV (known also as Christian Social Party or PCS) [Erna HENNICOT-SCHOEPGES]; Democratic Party or DP [Lydie POLFER]; Green Party [Abbes JACOBY and Felix BRAS]; Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Jean ASSELBORN]; Marxist and Reformed Communist Party DEI LENK (the Left) [no formal leadership]; other minor parties
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
ABBL (bankers' association); ALEBA (financial sector trade union); Centrale Paysanne (federation of agricultural producers); CEP (professional sector chamber); CGFP (trade union representing civil service); Chambre de Commerce (Chamber of Commerce); Chambre des Metiers (Chamber of Artisans); FEDIL (federation of industrialists); LCGP (center-right trade union); OGBL (center-left trade union)
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT, Australia Group, Benelux, CCC, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NATO, NEA, NSG, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Arlette CONZEMIUS-PACCOURD
chancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
consulate(s) general: New York and San Francisco
FAX: [1] (202) 328-8270
telephone: [1] (202) 265-4171
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Gerald LOFTUS
embassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel-Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg City
mailing address: American Embassy Luxembourg, Unit 1410, APO AE 09126-1410 (official mail); American Embassy Luxembourg, PSC 9, Box 9500, APO AE 09123 (personal mail)
telephone: [352] 46 01 23
FAX: [352] 46 14 01
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; design was based on the flag of France
   Economy    Luxembourg
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
This stable, high-income economy features solid growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. The industrial sector, initially dominated by steel, has become increasingly diversified to include chemicals, rubber, and other products. Growth in the financial sector has more than compensated for the decline in steel. Services, especially banking, account for a substantial proportion of the economy. Agriculture is based on small family-owned farms. The economy depends on foreign and trans-border workers for 30% of its labor force. Although Luxembourg, like all EU members, has suffered from the global economic slump, the country has maintained a fairly robust growth rate. On 1 January 2002, Luxembourg - together with 11 of its EU partners - began to replace its circulating national currency with the euro.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $19.2 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
4% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $43,400 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 1%
industry: 30%
services: 69% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
2.4% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
262,300 (of whom 87,400 are foreign cross-border workers primarily from France, Belgium, and Germany) (2000)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
services 90.1%, industry 8%, agriculture 1.9% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.4% (2001 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $4.44 billion
expenditures: $4.44 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
banking, iron and steel, food processing, chemicals, metal products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.9% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
467.7 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 57.52%
hydro: 25.66%
other: 16.82% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
6.158 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
735 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
6.458 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits, wine grapes; livestock products
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$7.85 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
EU 85% (Germany 24%, France 21%, Belgium 13%), US 4% (2000)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$10.25 billion (c.i.f., 2000)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
EU 88% (Belgium 37%, Germany 25%, France 13%), US 4% (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$NA
Economic aid - donor:
Definition Field Listing
ODA, $160 million (1999)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
euro (EUR); Luxembourg franc (LUF)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
EUR; LUF
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
euros per US dollar - 1.1324 (January 2002), 1.1175 (2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); Luxembourg francs per US dollar - 34.77 (January 1999), 36.299 (1998), 35.774 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Luxembourg
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
314,700 (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
215,741 (2000)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly buried cables
domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; buried cable
international: 3 channels leased on TAT-6 coaxial submarine cable (Europe to North America)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 2 (1999)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
285,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
5 (1999)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
285,000 (1998 est.)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.lu
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
8 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
100,000 (2001)
   Transportation    Luxembourg
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 274 km
standard gauge: 274 km 1.435-m gauge (242 km electrified) (2001)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 5,166 km
paved: 5,166 km (including 118 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1999)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
37 km (on the Moselle)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum products 48 km
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Mertert
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 60 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,487,752 GRT/2,123,579 DWT
ships by type: bulk 2, chemical tanker 13, container 8, liquefied gas 19, passenger 4, petroleum tanker 8, roll on/roll off 6
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Belgium 21, Finland 3, France 8, Germany 10, Monaco 1, Netherlands 3, Norway 1, United Kingdom 9, United States 3 (2002 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
2 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2001)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2001)
   Military    Luxembourg
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Grand Ducal Police
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
19 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 113,557 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 93,429 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 2,565 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$147.8 million (FY01/02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
0.8% (FY01/02)
   Transnational Issues    Luxembourg
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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