Top banner
The World Factbook 2002

         
  Madagascar  
Flag of Madagascar
Click to enlarge
Categories Banner
  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Madagascar

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Madagascar
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Formerly an independent kingdom, Madagascar became a French colony in 1886, but regained its independence in 1960. During 1992-93, free presidential and National Assembly elections were held, ending 17 years of single-party rule. In 1997, in the second presidential race, Didier RATSIRAKA, the leader during the 1970s and 1980s, was returned to the presidency. The 2001 presidential election was contested between the followers of Didier RATSIRAKA and Marc RAVALOMANANA, nearly causing secession of half of the country. In April 2002 the High Constitutional Court announced RAVALOMANANA the winner.
   Geography    Madagascar
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
20 00 S, 47 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 587,040 sq km
water: 5,500 sq km
land: 581,540 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly less than twice the size of Arizona
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
4,828 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
contiguous zone: 24 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
continental shelf: 200 NM or 100 NM from the 2,500-m deep isobath
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 4%
permanent crops: 1%
other: 95% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
10,900 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
periodic cyclones
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; several species of flora and fauna unique to the island are endangered
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel
   People    Madagascar
Population:
Definition Field Listing
16,473,477 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 45% (male 3,713,700; female 3,696,478)
15-64 years: 51.8% (male 4,227,931; female 4,313,940)
65 years and over: 3.2% (male 241,699; female 279,729) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.03% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
42.41 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
12.15 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
81.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 55.74 years
female: 58.11 years (2002 est.)
male: 53.45 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
5.77 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.15% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
11,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
870 (1999 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)
adjective: Malagasy
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
French (official), Malagasy (official)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 80%
male: 88%
female: 73% (1990 est.)
   Government    Madagascar
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Madagascar
conventional short form: Madagascar
local short form: Madagascar
former: Malagasy Republic
local long form: Republique de Madagascar
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Antananarivo
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
6 provinces (faritany); Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
26 June 1960 (from France)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 26 June (1960)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
19 August 1992 by national referendum
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Marc RAVALOMANANA (since 6 May 2002)
head of government: Prime Minister Jacques SYLLA (27 May 2002)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 16 December 2001 (next to be held NA November 2006); prime minister appointed by the president from a list of candidates nominated by the National Assembly
election results: percent of vote - Didier RATSIRAKA (AREMA) 40.89%, Marc RAVALOMANANA 46.21%; note - on 29 April 2002, the High Constitutional Court announced RAVALOMANANA the winner by just over 50% after a recount; RATSIRIKA's prime minister was put under house arrest on 27 May 2002, and SYLLA was appointed the new prime minister by President RAVALOMANANA
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (150 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); note - the legislature is scheduled to become a bicameral Parliament with the establishment of a Senate; two-thirds of the seats of this Senate will be filled by regional assemblies whose members will be elected by popular vote; the remaining one-third of the seats will be appointed by the president; the total number of seats will be determined by the National Assembly; all members will serve four-year terms
elections: National Assembly - last held 17 May 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - AREMA 63, LEADER/Fanilo 16, AVI 14, RPSD 11, AFFA 6, MFM 3, AKFM/Fanavaozana 3, GRAD/Iloafo 1, Fihaonana 1, independents 32
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Constitutional Court or Haute Cour Constitutionnelle
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Action, Truth, Development, and Harmony or AFFA [Professor Albert ZAFY]; Association for the Rebirth of Madagascar or AREMA [leader vacant]; Congress Party for Malagasy Independence or AKFM/Fanavaozana [leader NA]; Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery or LEADER/Fanilo [Herizo RAZAFIMAHALEO]; Fihaonana Rally or Fihaonana [Guy RAZANAMASY]; Group of Reflection and Action for the Development of Madagascar or GRAD/Iloafo; Judged by Your Work or AVI [Norbert RATSIRAHONANA]; Movement for the Progress of Madagascar or MFM [Manandafy RAKOTONIRINA]; Renewal of the Social Democratic Party or RPSD [Evariste MARSON]; Tranobe (Big House) [Ny Hasina ANDRIAMANJATO]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Federalist Movement; National Council of Christian Churches or FFKM
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Zina ANDRIANARIVELO-RAZAFY
consulate(s) general: New York
FAX: [1] (202) 265-3034
telephone: [1] (202) 265-5525, 5526
chancery: 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Wanda L. NESBITT
embassy: 14-16 Rue Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo
mailing address: B. P. 620, Antsahavola, Antananarivo
telephone: [261] (20) 22-212-57
FAX: [261] (20) 22-345-39
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side
   Economy    Madagascar
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Madagascar faces problems of chronic malnutrition, underfunded health and education facilities, a roughly 3% annual population growth rate, and severe loss of forest cover, accompanied by erosion. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is the mainstay of the economy, accounting for one-third of GDP and contributing more than 70% to export earnings. Industry features textile manufacturing and the processing of agricultural products. Growth in output in 1992-97 averaged less than the growth rate of the population. Growth has been held back by antigovernment strikes and demonstrations, a decline in world coffee prices, and the erratic commitment of the government to economic reform. The extent of government reforms, outside financial aid, and foreign investment will be key determinants of future growth.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $14 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
5% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $870 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 34%
industry: 11%
services: 55% (1999 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
70% (1994 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 37.3% (1997)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
46 (1997)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
7% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
7 million (1999)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $553 million
expenditures: $735 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
meat processing, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
820 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 36.59%
hydro: 63.41%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
762.6 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$680 million (f.o.b., 2000)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, vanilla, shellfish, sugar; cotton cloth, chromite, petroleum products
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
France 41%, US 21%, Germany 7%, Japan 4%, UK 1% (2000)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$919 million (f.o.b., 2000)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
intermediate manufactures, capital goods, petroleum, consumer goods, food
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
France 38%, Hong Kong 10%, China 5%, Singapore 5%, Japan 3%
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$4.5 billion (2000)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$838 million (1997)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Malagasy franc (MGF)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
MGF
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Malagasy francs per US dollar - 6,531.4 (December 2001), 6,588.5 (2001), 6,767.5 (2000), 6,283.8 (1999), 5,441.4 (1998), 5,090.9 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Madagascar
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
55,000 (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
63,100 (2000)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: system is above average for the region
domestic: open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter links connect regions
international: submarine cable to Bahrain; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 2 (plus a number of repeater stations), FM 9, shortwave 6 (2001)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
3.05 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
1 (plus 36 repeaters) (2001)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
325,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.mg
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
2 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
30,000 (2000)
   Transportation    Madagascar
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 893 km
narrow gauge: 893 km 1.000-m gauge (2001)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 49,837 km
paved: 5,781 km
unpaved: 44,056 km (1996)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
note: of local importance only
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Antsiranana, Antsohimbondrona, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 15 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 27,199 GRT/37,462 DWT
ships by type: cargo 9, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 2 (2002 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
130 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 29
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 2 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 101
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 55
under 914 m: 44 (2001)
   Military    Madagascar
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
People's Armed Forces (comprising Intervention Force, Development Force, Aeronaval [Navy and Air] Force), Gendarmerie, Presidential Security Regiment
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
20 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 3,758,940 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,229,304 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 153,856 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$48.7 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
1.2% (FY01)
   Transnational Issues    Madagascar
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island (all administered by France)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption; transshipment point for heroin

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Bottom Banner

 




Copyright © 2013 All rights reserved.