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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Macau  
Flag of Macau
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Macau

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Macau
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Colonized by the Portuguese in the 16th century, Macau was the first European settlement in the Far East. Pursuant to an agreement signed by China and Portugal on 13 April 1987, Macau became the Macau Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China on 20 December 1999. China has promised that, under its "one country, two systems" formula, China's socialist economic system will not be practiced in Macau and that Macau will enjoy a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign and defense affairs.
   Geography    Macau
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
22 10 N, 113 33 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Southeast Asia
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 25.4 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 25.4 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 0.34 km
border countries: China 0.34 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
41 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
not specified
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
generally flat
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Coloane Alto 172.4 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
NEGL
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100%
note: "green areas" represent 22.4% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
NA sq km
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
typhoons
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
essentially urban; one causeway and two bridges connect the two islands of Coloane and Taipa to the peninsula on mainland
   People    Macau
Population:
Definition Field Listing
461,833 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 21.8% (male 52,262; female 48,439)
15-64 years: 70.9% (male 154,942; female 172,647)
65 years and over: 7.3% (male 13,616; female 19,927) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.75% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
12.19 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.78 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
9.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
4.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 81.78 years
female: 84.73 years (2002 est.)
male: 78.97 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.31 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Chinese
adjective: Chinese
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Chinese 95%, Macanese (mixed Portuguese and Asian ancestry), Portuguese, other
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Buddhist 50%, Roman Catholic 15%, none and other 35% (1997 est.)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Portuguese, Chinese (Cantonese)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90%
male: 93%
female: 86% (1981 est.)
   Government    Macau
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Macau Special Administrative Region
conventional short form: Macau
local short form: Aomen (Chinese); Macau (Portuguese)
local long form: Aomen Tebie Xingzhengqu (Chinese); Regiao Administrativa Especial de Macau (Portuguese)
Dependency status:
Definition Field Listing
special administrative region of China
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
none (special administrative region of China)
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
none (special administrative region of China)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
National Day (Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949); note - 20 December 1999 is celebrated as Macau Special Administrative Region Establishment Day
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
Basic Law, approved in March 1993 by China's National People's Congress, is Macau's "mini-constitution"
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on Portuguese civil law system
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
direct election 18 years of age, universal for permanent residents living in Macau for the past seven years; indirect election limited to organizations registered as "corporate voters" (257 are currently registered) and a 300-member Election Committee drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, and central government bodies
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President of China JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993)
elections: chief executive chosen by a 200-member selection committee for up to two five-year terms
cabinet: Executive Council consists of all five government secretaries, three legislators, and two businessmen
head of government: Chief Executive Edmund HO Hau-wah (since 20 December 1999)
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Legislative Council or LEGCO (27 seats; 10 elected by popular vote, 10 by indirect vote, and 7 appointed by the chief executive; members serve four-year terms)
election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats by political bloc - Entertainment Industry 3, pro-democracy 2, pro-Beijing Labor Union 2, pro-Beijing Neighborhood Association 2, pro-business 1
elections: last held 23 September 2001 (next to be held NA 2005)
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
The Court of Final Appeal in the Macau Special Administrative Region
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
there are no formal political parties, however, there are civic associations that, for purposes of legislative voting, join together to form political blocs
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Catholic Church [Domingos LAM, bishop]; Macau Society of Tourism and Entertainment or STDM [Stanley HO, managing director]; Union for Democracy Development [Antonio NG Kuok-cheong, leader]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
CCC, ESCAP (associate), IHO, IMO (associate), Interpol (subbureau), ISO (correspondent), UNESCO (associate), WMO, WToO (associate), WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
none (special administrative region of China)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
the US has no offices in Macau, and US interests are monitored by the US Consulate General in Hong Kong
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
light green with a lotus flower above a stylized bridge and water in white, beneath an arc of five gold, five-pointed stars: one large in center of arc and four smaller
   Economy    Macau
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Macau's economy two years after reversion to China remains one of the most open in the world, according to the World Trade Organization. The government collects no duty on imports and sets no restrictions on exports beyond those required by international agreements. The territory's net exports of goods and services account for 35% of GDP, with tourism and apparel exports as the mainstays. The territory therefore has been hit hard by the 2001 downturn in its key US and EU export markets. Tourism remained strong, however, driven by a surge in visitors from mainland China. In response to the expected contraction of the economy in 2002, the government has announced a stimulative income tax cut and public works program that will push the budget into deficit. China already has extended support by easing restrictions on travel to Macau and is proposing a China-Hong Kong-Macau free trade area. China's economic weight is increasingly felt, with the mainland now holding more than 50% of assets in the financial, real estate, and construction sectors. Mainlanders, however, have been excluded from bidding on the gambling industry licenses that Macau is offering to break up the territory's four-decade-old gambling monopoly. Gambling taxes account for up to 60% of revenue, and the government with Beijing's backing intends to revitalize the industry.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $8 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.5% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $17,600 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 1%
industry: 25%
services: 74% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
-2% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
218,000 (2001)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
restaurants and hotels 26%, manufacturing 20%, other services and agriculture 54% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
6.5% (2001 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $1.15 billion
expenditures: $1.03 billion, including capital expenditures of $166 million (2000 est.)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
tourism, gambling, clothing, textiles, electronics, footwear, toys
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
1.4 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
1.476 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
1 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
175 million kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
rice, vegetables
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$2.5 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
clothing, textiles, cement, electronics, cameras
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 48%, EU 28%, China 10%, Hong Kong 7% (2000)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$2.3 billion (c.i.f., 2000)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
clothing, textiles, yarn, minerals, electrical machinery, fuel, livestock
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
China 41%, Hong Kong 15%, EU 10%, Taiwan 10%, Japan 6% (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$1.5 billion (1998)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$NA
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
pataca (MOP)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
MOP
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
patacas per US dollar - 8.033 (January 2002), 8.034 (2001), 8.026 (2000), 7.992 (1999), 7.979 (1998), 7.975 (1997); note - linked to the Hong Kong dollar at the rate of 1.03 patacas per Hong Kong dollar
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Macau
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
176,902 (November 2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
158,251 (November 2001)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: fairly modern communication facilities maintained for domestic and international services
domestic: NA
international: HF radiotelephone communication facility; access to international communications carriers provided via Hong Kong and China; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 0, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
160,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
0 (receives Hong Kong broadcasts) (1997)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
49,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.mo
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
1 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
60,000 (2001)
   Transportation    Macau
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 50 km
paved: 50 km
unpaved: 0 km (2001)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
none
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Macau
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
none (2002 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2001)
   Military    Macau
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
no regular indigenous military forces; responsibility for defense reverted to China on 20 December 1999; there is a local police force
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 128,005 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 70,508 (2002 est.)
Military - note:
Definition Field Listing
responsibility for defense reverted to China on 20 December 1999
   Transnational Issues    Macau
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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