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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Malawi  
Flag of Malawi
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Malawi

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Malawi
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Established in 1891, the British protectorate of Nyasaland became the independent nation of Malawi in 1964. After three decades of one-party rule, the country held multiparty elections in 1994 under a provisional constitution, which took full effect the following year. National multiparty elections were held again in 1999.
   Geography    Malawi
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southern Africa, east of Zambia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
13 30 S, 34 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 118,480 sq km
water: 24,400 sq km
land: 94,080 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,881 km
border countries: Mozambique 1,569 km, Tanzania 475 km, Zambia 837 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
sub-tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to November)
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
narrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded hills, some mountains
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: junction of the Shire River and international boundary with Mozambique 37 m
highest point: Sapitwa (Mount Mlanje) 3,002 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
limestone, arable land, hydropower, unexploited deposits of uranium, coal, and bauxite
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 20%
permanent crops: 1%
other: 79% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
280 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation; land degradation; water pollution from agricultural runoff, sewage, industrial wastes; siltation of spawning grounds endangers fish populations
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; Lake Nyasa, some 580 km long, is the country's most prominent physical feature
   People    Malawi
Population:
Definition Field Listing
10,701,824
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 44% (male 2,358,730; female 2,347,017)
15-64 years: 53.2% (male 2,810,478; female 2,884,601)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 120,761; female 180,237) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.39% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
37.13 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
23.2 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
119.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 36.59 years
female: 37.15 years (2002 est.)
male: 36.05 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
5.04 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
15.96% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
800,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
70,000 (1999 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Malawian(s)
adjective: Malawian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Chewa, Nyanja, Tumbuka, Yao, Lomwe, Sena, Tonga, Ngoni, Ngonde, Asian, European
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Protestant 55%, Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 20%, indigenous beliefs 3%, other 2%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
English (official), Chichewa (official), other languages important regionally
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 58%
male: 72.8%
female: 43.4% (1999 est.)
   Government    Malawi
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Malawi
conventional short form: Malawi
former: British Central African Protectorate, Nyasaland Protectorate, Nyasaland
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
multiparty democracy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Lilongwe
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
27 districts; Balaka, Blantyre, Chikwawa, Chiradzulu, Chitipa, Dedza, Dowa, Karonga, Kasungu, Likoma, Lilongwe, Machinga (Kasupe), Mangochi, Mchinji, Mulanje, Mwanza, Mzimba, Ntcheu, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Nsanje, Ntchisi, Phalombe, Rumphi, Salima, Thyolo, Zomba
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
6 July 1964 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day (Republic Day), 6 July (1964)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
18 May 1994
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Bakili MULUZI (since 21 May 1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Bakili MULUZI (since 21 May 1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: 38-member Cabinet named by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 15 June 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results: Bakili MULUZI reelected president; percent of vote - Bakili MULUZI (UDF) 51.4%, Gwandaguluwe CHAKUAMBA (MCP-AFORD) 44.3%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Assembly (193 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 15 June 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - UDF 48%, MCP 34%, AFORD 15%, others 3%; seats by party - UDF 96, MCP 61, AFORD 30, others 6
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court of Appeal; High Court (chief justice appointed by the president, puisne judges appointed on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission); magistrate's courts
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Alliance for Democracy or AFORD [Chakufwa CHIHANA, president]; Malawi Congress Party or MCP [Gwanda CHAKUAMBA, president, John TEMBO, vice president]; Malawi Democratic Party or MDP [Kampelo KALUA, president]; United Democratic Front or UDF [Bakili MULUZI] - governing party
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
National Democratic Alliance [Brown MPINGANJIRA]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Paul Tony Steven KANDIERO
FAX: [1] (202) 265-0976
telephone: [1] (202) 797-1007
chancery: 2408 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Roger A. MEECE
embassy: Area 40, Plot 24, Kenyatta Road
mailing address: P. O. Box 30016, Lilongwe 3, Malawi
telephone: [265] 773 166
FAX: [265] 770 471
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green with a radiant, rising, red sun centered in the black band
Government - note:
Definition Field Listing
the executive exerts considerable influence over the legislature
   Economy    Malawi
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Landlocked Malawi ranks among the world's least developed countries. The economy is predominately agricultural, with about 90% of the population living in rural areas. Agriculture accounts for 40% of GDP and 88% of export revenues. The economy depends on substantial inflows of economic assistance from the IMF, the World Bank, and individual donor nations. In late 2000, Malawi was approved for relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) program. The government faces strong challenges, e.g., to fully develop a market economy, to improve educational facilities, to face up to environmental problems, and to deal with the rapidly growing problem of HIV/AIDS. The performance of the tobacco sector is key to short-term growth.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $7 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.7% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $660 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 40%
industry: 19%
services: 41% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
54% (FY90/91 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
28.6% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
4.5 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 86% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $490 million
expenditures: $523 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY99/00 est.)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
tobacco, tea, sugar, sawmill products, cement, consumer goods
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.5% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
825 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 3.03%
hydro: 96.97%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
767.25 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
tobacco, sugarcane, cotton, tea, corn, potatoes, cassava (tapioca), sorghum, pulses; cattle, goats, groundnuts, Macadamia nuts
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$415.5 million (f.o.b., 2001)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
tobacco, tea, sugar, cotton, coffee, peanuts, wood products, apparel
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
South Africa 18%, Germany 13%, US 13%, UK 10%, Japan 7%, Netherlands 3% (2000)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$463.6 million (f.o.b., 2001)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
food, petroleum products, semimanufactures, consumer goods, transportation equipment
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
South Africa 40%, UK 11%, Zimbabwe 7%, Japan 5%, Germany 2%, US 1.8%, Zambia (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$2.8 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$427 million (1999)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Malawian kwacha (MWK)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
MWK
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Malawian kwachas per US dollar - 67.3111 (December 2001), 72.1973 (2001), 59.5438 (2000), 44.0881 (1999), 31.0727 (1998), 16.4442 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 July - 30 June
   Communications    Malawi
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
38,000 (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
49,000 (2000)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: NA
domestic: system employs open-wire lines, microwave radio relay links, and radiotelephone communications stations
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 9, FM 5 (plus 15 repeater stations), shortwave 2 (plus a third station held in standby status) (2001)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
2.6 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2001)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.mw
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
7 (2001)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
15,000 (2000)
   Transportation    Malawi
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 797 km
narrow gauge: 797 km 1.067-m gauge (2001)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 14,594 km
paved: 2,773 km
unpaved: 11,821 km (2001)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
144 km
note: on Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and Shire Riverall
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Chipoka, Monkey Bay, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Chilumba
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
44 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 38
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m: 23 (2001)
   Military    Malawi
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army (including Air Wing and Naval Detachment), Police (including paramilitary Mobile Force Unit)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,535,207 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,301,625 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$9.5 million (FY00/01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
0.76% (FY00/01)
   Transnational Issues    Malawi
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Malawi and Tanzania maintain a largely dormant dispute over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and current location of historical boundary in meandering Songwe River

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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