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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Mali  
Flag of Mali
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Mali

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Mali
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 with a transitional government, and in 1992 when Mali's first democratic presidential election was held. Since his reelection in 1997, President KONARE continued to push through political and economic reforms and to fight corruption. In 1999 he indicated he would not run for a third term, in keeping with the Malian constitution's two-term limit.
   Geography    Mali
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Western Africa, southwest of Algeria
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
17 00 N, 4 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1.24 million sq km
water: 20,000 sq km
land: 1.22 million sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 7,243 km
border countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, hydropower
note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 4%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 96% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
1,380 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan
   People    Mali
Population:
Definition Field Listing
11,340,480 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 47.2% (male 2,687,998; female 2,658,605)
15-64 years: 49.8% (male 2,698,789; female 2,950,276)
65 years and over: 3% (male 160,604; female 184,208) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.97% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
48.37 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
18.32 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
119.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 47.39 years
female: 48.64 years (2002 est.)
male: 46.18 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
6.73 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.7% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
140,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
9,900 (1999 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Malian(s)
adjective: Malian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 38%
male: 45%
female: 31% (1998 est.)
   Government    Mali
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Mali
conventional short form: Mali
local short form: Mali
former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic
local long form: Republique de Mali
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Bamako
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
22 September 1960 (from France)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 22 September (1960)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
adopted 12 January 1992
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court (which was formally established on 9 March 1994); has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Amadou Toumani TOURE (since 8 June 2002)
head of government: Prime Minister Modibo KEITA (since 18 March 2002)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (two-term limit); election last held 12 May 2002 (next to be held NA May 2007); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Amadou Toumani TOURE elected president; percent of vote - Amadou Toumani TOURE 64.4%, Soumaila CISSE 35.6%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 20 July and 3 August 1997 (next to be held NA July 2002); note - much of the opposition boycotted the election
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ADEMA 95, RPM 35, PARENA 8, CDS 4, UDD 3, PDP 2
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Diounconda Traore KEITA, party chairman]; Block of Alternative for the Renewal of Africa or BARA [Yoro DIAKITE]; Democratic and Social Convention or CDS [Mamadou Bakary SANGARE, chairman]; Movement for the Independence, Renaissance and Integration of Africa or MIRIA [Mohamed Lamine TRAORE, Mouhamedou DICKO]; National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL, chairman]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Me Idrissa TRAORE]; Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Yoro DIAKITE, chairman; Tiebile DRAME, secretary general]; Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT [Ali GNANGADO]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Almamy SYLLA, chairman]; Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Bonbasor KEITA, chairman]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Bamou TOURE, secretary general]; Union of Democratic Forces for Progress or UFDP [Youssouf TOURE, secretary general]; Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Patriotic Movement of the Ghanda Koye or MPGK; United Movement and Fronts of Azawad or MFUA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIPONUH, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Cheick Oumar DIARRAH
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603
telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Michael E. RANNEBERGER
embassy: Rue Rochester NY and Rue Mohamed V, Bamako
mailing address: B. P. 34, Bamako
telephone: [223] 22 54 70
FAX: [223] 22 37 12
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
   Economy    Mali
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with 65% of its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population is nomadic and some 70% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. Mali is heavily dependent on foreign aid and vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices for cotton, its main export. In 1997, the government continued its successful implementation of an IMF-recommended structural adjustment program that is helping the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali's adherence to economic reform and the 50% devaluation of the African franc in January 1994 have pushed up economic growth to a sturdy 5% average in 1996-2000. In 2001, GDP decreased by 1.2% mainly due to a 50% drop in cotton production in 2000-01.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $9.2 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-1.2% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $840 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 45%
industry: 17%
services: 38% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
64% average; 30% of the total population living in urban areas; 76% of the total population living in rural areas) (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 40.4% (1994)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
50.5 (1994)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
4.5% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
3.93 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture and fishing 80% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
14.6% urban areas; 5.3% rural areas (2001 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $764 million
expenditures: $828 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
462 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 43.29%
hydro: 56.71%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
429.66 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$575 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
cotton 43%, gold 40%, livestock (2001 est.)
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Brazil 10.6%, South Korea 9.9%, Italy 7.3%, Canada 7% (2000)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$600 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, construction materials, petroleum, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Cote d'Ivoire 21%, France 12.4%, Senegal 4%, Germany 4%, Benelux (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$3.3 billion (2000)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$596.4 million (2001)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
XOF
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 742.79 (January 2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997); note - from 1 January 1999, the XOF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF per euro
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Mali
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
45,000 (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
40,000 (2001)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: domestic system unreliable but improving; provides only minimal service
domestic: network consists of microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone communications stations; expansion of microwave radio relay in progress
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 1, FM 28, shortwave 1
note: the shortwave station in Bamako has seven frequencies and five transmitters and relays broadcasts for China Radio International (2001)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
570,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
1 (plus repeaters) (2001)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
45,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.ml
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
13 (2001)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
10,000 (2000)
   Transportation    Mali
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 729 km
narrow gauge: 729 km 1.000-m gauge
note: linked to Senegal's rail system through Kayes (2001)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 15,100 km
paved: 1,827 km
unpaved: 13,273 km (1996)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
1,815 km
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Koulikoro
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
27 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 9 (2001)
   Military    Mali
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Guard, National Police (Surete Nationale)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,369,578 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,358,646 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$50 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
2% (FY01)
   Transnational Issues    Mali
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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