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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Maldives  
Flag of Maldives
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Maldives

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Maldives
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The Maldives were long a sultanate, first under Dutch and then under British protection. They became a republic in 1968, three years after independence. Tourism and fishing are being developed on the archipelago.
   Geography    Maldives
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southern Asia, group of atolls in the Indian Ocean, south-southwest of India
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
3 15 N, 73 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Asia
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 300 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 300 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
about 1.7 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
644 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
territorial sea: 12 NM
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
contiguous zone: 24 NM
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to March); rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August)
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
flat, with white sandy beaches
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Wilingili island in the Addu Atoll 2.4 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
fish
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 7%
other: 90% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
NA sq km
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
low level of islands makes them very sensitive to sea level rise
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
depletion of freshwater aquifers threatens water supplies; global warming and sea level rise; coral reef bleaching
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
1,190 coral islands grouped into 26 atolls (200 inhabited islands, plus 80 islands with tourist resorts); archipelago with strategic location astride and along major sea lanes in Indian Ocean
   People    Maldives
Population:
Definition Field Listing
320,165 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 45.3% (male 74,493; female 70,394)
15-64 years: 51.7% (male 84,548; female 81,092)
65 years and over: 3% (male 4,944; female 4,694) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.95% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
37.41 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
7.86 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.05 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
61.93 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 62.93 years
female: 64.2 years (2002 est.)
male: 61.72 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
5.38 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.05% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Maldivian(s)
adjective: Maldivian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
South Indians, Sinhalese, Arabs
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Sunni Muslim
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Maldivian Dhivehi (dialect of Sinhala, script derived from Arabic), English spoken by most government officials
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.2%
male: 93.3%
female: 93% (1995 est.)
   Government    Maldives
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Maldives
conventional short form: Maldives
local short form: Dhivehi Raajje
local long form: Dhivehi Raajjeyge Jumhooriyyaa
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Male
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
19 atolls (atholhu, singular and plural) and 1 other first-order administrative division*; Alifu, Baa, Dhaalu, Faafu, Gaafu Alifu, Gaafu Dhaalu, Gnaviyani, Haa Alifu, Haa Dhaalu, Kaafu, Laamu, Lhaviyani, Maale*, Meemu, Noonu, Raa, Seenu, Shaviyani, Thaa, Vaavu
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
26 July 1965 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 26 July (1965)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
adopted January 1998
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on Islamic law with admixtures of English common law primarily in commercial matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM (since 11 November 1978); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
elections: president nominated by the Majlis and then that nomination must be ratified by a national referendum (at least a 51% approval margin is required); president elected for a five-year term; election last held 16 October 1998 (next to be held NA October 2003)
election results: President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM reelected; percent of popular vote - Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM 90.9%
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president; note - need not be members of Majlis
head of government: President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM (since 11 November 1978); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral People's Council or Majlis (50 seats; 42 elected by popular vote, 8 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 20 November 1999 (next to be held NA November 2004)
election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - independents 42
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
High Court
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
although political parties are not banned, none exist
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
none
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
Maldives does not have an embassy in the US, but does have a Permanent Mission to the UN in New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
the US does not have an embassy in Maldives; the US Ambassador to Sri Lanka is accredited to Maldives and makes periodic visits there
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
red with a large green rectangle in the center bearing a vertical white crescent; the closed side of the crescent is on the hoist side of the flag
   Economy    Maldives
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Tourism, Maldives largest industry, accounts for 20% of GDP and more than 60% of the Maldives' foreign exchange receipts. Over 90% of government tax revenue comes from import duties and tourism-related taxes. Almost 400,000 tourists visited the islands in 1998. Fishing is a second leading sector. The Maldivian Government began an economic reform program in 1989 initially by lifting import quotas and opening some exports to the private sector. Subsequently, it has liberalized regulations to allow more foreign investment. Agriculture and manufacturing continue to play a minor role in the economy, constrained by the limited availability of cultivable land and the shortage of domestic labor. Most staple foods must be imported. Industry, which consists mainly of garment production, boat building, and handicrafts, accounts for about 18% of GDP. Maldivian authorities worry about the impact of erosion and possible global warming on their low-lying country; 80% of the area is one meter or less above sea level.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $1.2 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
7% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $3,870 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 20%
industry: 18%
services: 62% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
3% (2000 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
67,000 (1995)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 22%, industry 18%, services 60% (1995)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
NEGL%
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $166 million (excluding foreign grants)
expenditures: $192 million, including capital expenditures of $80 million (1999 est.)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
fish processing, tourism, shipping, boat building, coconut processing, garments, woven mats, rope, handicrafts, coral and sand mining
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
4.4% (1996 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
110 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
102.3 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
coconuts, corn, sweet potatoes; fish
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$88 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
fish, clothing
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US, UK, Sri Lanka, Japan
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$372 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
consumer goods, intermediate and capital goods, petroleum products
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Singapore, India, Sri Lanka, Japan, Canada
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$237 million (2000 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$NA
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
rufiyaa (MVR)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
MVR
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
rufiyaa per US dollar - 11.770 (fixed rate since 1995)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Maldives
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
21,000 (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
1,290 (1997)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: minimal domestic and international facilities
domestic: interatoll communication through microwave links; all inhabited islands are connected with telephone and fax service
international: satellite earth station - 3 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
35,000 (1999)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
1 (1997)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
10,000 (1999)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.mv
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
1 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
6,000 (2001)
   Transportation    Maldives
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km; note - Male has 9.6 km of coral highways within the city (1988 est.)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
none
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Gan, Male
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 14 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 51,532 GRT/71,298 DWT
ships by type: cargo 13, short-sea passenger 1 (2002 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
5 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2001)
   Military    Maldives
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
National Security Service
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 74,893 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 41,672 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$34.5 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
8.6% (FY01)
   Transnational Issues    Maldives
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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