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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Vanuatu  
Flag of Vanuatu
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Vanuatu

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Vanuatu
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The British and French who settled the New Hebrides in the 19th century, agreed in 1906 to an Anglo-French Condominium, which administered the islands until independence in 1980.
   Geography    Vanuatu
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to Australia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
16 00 S, 167 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Oceania
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 12,200 sq km
land: 12,200 sq km
note: includes more than 80 islands
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
2,528 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
contiguous zone: 24 NM
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; moderated by southeast trade winds
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly mountains of volcanic origin; narrow coastal plains
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Tabwemasana 1,877 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
manganese, hardwood forests, fish
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 7%
other: 90% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
NA sq km
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
tropical cyclones or typhoons (January to April); volcanism causes minor earthquakes; tsunamis
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
a majority of the population does not have access to a potable and reliable supply of water; deforestation
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
a Y-shaped chain of four main islands and 80 smaller islands; several of the islands have active volcanoes
   People    Vanuatu
Population:
Definition Field Listing
196,178 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 35.6% (male 35,681; female 34,164)
15-64 years: 61.1% (male 61,384; female 58,473)
65 years and over: 3.3% (male 3,473; female 3,003) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.66% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
24.83 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
8.25 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.16 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
59.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 61.33 years
female: 62.8 years (2002 est.)
male: 59.93 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.08 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Ni-Vanuatu (singular and plural)
adjective: Ni-Vanuatu
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
indigenous Melanesian 98%, French, Vietnamese, Chinese, other Pacific Islanders
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Presbyterian 36.7%, Anglican 15%, Roman Catholic 15%, indigenous beliefs 7.6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6.2%, Church of Christ 3.8%, other 15.7% (including Jon Frum Cargo cult)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
three official languages: English, French, pidgin (known as Bislama or Bichelama), plus more than 100 local languages
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 53%
male: 57%
female: 48% (1979 est.)
   Government    Vanuatu
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Vanuatu
conventional short form: Vanuatu
former: New Hebrides
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Port-Vila
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
6 provinces; Malampa, Penama, Sanma, Shefa, Tafea, Torba
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
30 July 1980 (from France and UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 30 July (1980)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
30 July 1980
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
unified system being created from former dual French and British systems
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Father John BANI (since 25 March 1999)
elections: president elected for a four-year term by an electoral college consisting of Parliament and the presidents of the regional councils for a five-year term; election for president last held 25 March 1999 (next to be held NA 2004); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by Parliament from among its members; election for prime minister last held 2 May 2002 (next to be held NA 2003)
note: the government of Prime Minister Barak SOPE was ousted in a no confidence vote on 14 April 2001 and Edward NATAPEI was elected the new prime minister by Parliament
election results: Father John BANI elected president; percent of electoral college vote - NA%; Edward NATAPEI reelected prime minister by Parliament
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, responsible to Parliament
head of government: Prime Minister Edward NATAPEI (since 16 April 2001); Deputy Prime Minister Serge VOHOR (since 16 April 2001)
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Parliament (52 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 2 May 2002 (next to be held NA 2006)
note: the National Council of Chiefs advises on matters of custom and land
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - UMP 15, VP 14, VRP 3, MPP 2, other and independent 18; note - political party associations are fluid
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the president after consultation with the prime minister and the leader of the opposition, three other justices are appointed by the president on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Jon Frum Movement [Song KEASPAI]; Melanesian Progressive Party or MPP [Barak SOPE]; National United Party or NUP [Dinh Van THAN]; Union of Moderate Parties or UMP [Serge VOHOR]; Vanuaaku Party (Our Land Party) or VP [Edward NATAPEI]; Vanuatu Republican Party [Maxime Carlot KORMAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT, ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IMF, IMO, IOC, ITU, NAM, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIBH, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTrO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
Vanuatu does not have an embassy in the US, it does, however, have a Permanent Mission to the UN
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
the US does not have an embassy in Vanuatu; the ambassador to Papua New Guinea is accredited to Vanuatu
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a black isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) all separated by a black-edged yellow stripe in the shape of a horizontal Y (the two points of the Y face the hoist side and enclose the triangle); centered in the triangle is a boar's tusk encircling two crossed namele leaves, all in yellow
   Economy    Vanuatu
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
The economy is based primarily on subsistence or small-scale agriculture which provides a living for 65% of the population. Fishing, offshore financial services, and tourism, with about 50,000 visitors in 1997, are other mainstays of the economy. Mineral deposits are negligible; the country has no known petroleum deposits. A small light industry sector caters to the local market. Tax revenues come mainly from import duties. Economic development is hindered by dependence on relatively few commodity exports, vulnerability to natural disasters, and long distances from main markets and between constituent islands. A severe earthquake in November 1999 followed by a tsunami, caused extensive damage to the northern island of Pentecote and left thousands homeless. Another powerful earthquake in January 2002 caused extensive damage in the capital, Port-Vila, and surrounding areas, and also was followed by a tsunami. GDP growth has risen less than 3% on average in the 1990s. In response to foreign concerns, the government has promised to tighten regulation of its offshore financial center.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $257 million (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.7% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $1,300 (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 26%
industry: 12%
services: 62% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
2.5% (2000 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 65%, services 30%, industry 5% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $94.4 million
expenditures: $99.8 million, including capital expenditures of $30.4 million (1996 est.)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
food and fish freezing, wood processing, meat canning
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1% (1997 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
39 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
36.27 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
copra, coconuts, cocoa, coffee, taro, yams, coconuts, fruits, vegetables; fish, beef
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$22.8 million (f.o.b., 2000)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
copra, kava, beef, cocoa, timber, coffee
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Japan 32%, Belgium 17%, US 17%, Germany 8% (2000)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$87.5 million (f.o.b., 2000)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, fuels
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Australia 28%, Singapore 14%, New Zealand 8%, Japan 4%, US 1% (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$64.6 million (1999 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$45.8 million (1995)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
vatu (VUV)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
VUV
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
vatu per US dollar - 146.02 (December 2001), 145.31 (2001), 137.64 (2000), 129.08 (1999), 127.52 (1998), 115.87 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Vanuatu
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
5,500 (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
310 (2000)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: NA
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 1 (2002)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
67,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2002)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
2,300 (1999)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.vu
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
1 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
3,000 (2000)
   Transportation    Vanuatu
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,070 km
paved: 256 km
unpaved: 814 km (1996)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
none
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Forari, Port-Vila, Santo (Espiritu Santo)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 54 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,092,838 GRT/1,329,576 DWT
ships by type: bulk 22, cargo 9, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk 3, container 2, liquefied gas 3, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 7, vehicle carrier 6
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Australia 3, Canada 2, China 1, Japan 25, Monaco 4, Netherlands 1, New Zealand 5, Panama 1, Poland 1, Switzerland 2, United Kingdom 4, US 2, Vietnam 1 (2002 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
31 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 29
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 17 (2001)
   Military    Vanuatu
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
no regular military forces; Vanuatu Police Force (VPF; including the paramilitary Mobile Force or VMF)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$NA
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
   Transnational Issues    Vanuatu
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Matthew and Hunter Islands east of New Caledonia claimed by Vanuatu and France

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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