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The World Factbook 2002

         
  New Zealand  
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of New Zealand

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    New Zealand
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The British colony of New Zealand became an independent dominion in 1907 and supported the UK militarily in both World Wars. New Zealand's full participation in number of defense alliances lapsed by the 1980s. In recent years the government has sought to address longstanding native Maori grievances.
   Geography    New Zealand
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Australia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
41 00 S, 174 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Oceania
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 268,680 sq km
note: includes Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands
water: NA sq km
land: NA sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
about the size of Colorado
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
15,134 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 NM
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
temperate with sharp regional contrasts
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Cook 3,764 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, limestone
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 6%
other: 88% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
2,850 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
earthquakes are common, though usually not severe; volcanic activity
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation; soil erosion; native flora and fauna hard-hit by species introduced from outside
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic Seals, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
about 80% of the population lives in cities; Wellington is the southernmost national capital in the world
   People    New Zealand
Population:
Definition Field Listing
3,908,037 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 22.2% (male 443,921; female 422,804)
15-64 years: 66.3% (male 1,299,973; female 1,290,097)
65 years and over: 11.5% (male 196,640; female 254,602) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.12% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
14.23 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
7.55 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
4.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
6.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 78.15 years
female: 81.27 years (2002 est.)
male: 75.17 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.8 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.06% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
1,200 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
less than 100 (1999 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: New Zealander(s)
adjective: New Zealand
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
New Zealand European 74.5%, Maori 9.7%, other European 4.6%, Pacific Islander 3.8%, Asian and others 7.4%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Anglican 24%, Presbyterian 18%, Roman Catholic 15%, Methodist 5%, Baptist 2%, other Protestant 3%, unspecified or none 33% (1986)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
English (official), Maori (official)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1980 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%
   Government    New Zealand
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: New Zealand
abbreviation: NZ
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Wellington
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
93 counties, 9 districts*, and 3 town districts**; Akaroa, Amuri, Ashburton, Bay of Islands, Bruce, Buller, Chatham Islands, Cheviot, Clifton, Clutha, Cook, Dannevirke, Egmont, Eketahuna, Ellesmere, Eltham, Eyre, Featherston, Franklin, Golden Bay, Great Barrier Island, Grey, Hauraki Plains, Hawera*, Hawke's Bay, Heathcote, Hikurangi**, Hobson, Hokianga, Horowhenua, Hurunui, Hutt, Inangahua, Inglewood, Kaikoura, Kairanga, Kiwitea, Lake, Mackenzie, Malvern, Manaia**, Manawatu, Mangonui, Maniototo, Marlborough, Masterton, Matamata, Mount Herbert, Ohinemuri, Opotiki, Oroua, Otamatea, Otorohanga*, Oxford, Pahiatua, Paparua, Patea, Piako, Pohangina, Raglan, Rangiora*, Rangitikei, Rodney, Rotorua*, Runanga, Saint Kilda, Silverpeaks, Southland, Stewart Island, Stratford, Strathallan, Taranaki, Taumarunui, Taupo, Tauranga, Thames-Coromandel*, Tuapeka, Vincent, Waiapu, Waiheke, Waihemo, Waikato, Waikohu, Waimairi, Waimarino, Waimate, Waimate West, Waimea, Waipa, Waipawa*, Waipukurau*, Wairarapa South, Wairewa, Wairoa, Waitaki, Waitomo*, Waitotara, Wallace, Wanganui, Waverley**, Westland, Whakatane*, Whangarei, Whangaroa, Woodville
note: there may be a new administrative structure of 16 regions (Auckland, Bay of Plenty, Canterbury, Gisborne, Hawke's Bay, Marlborough, Nelson, Northland, Otago, Southland, Taranaki, Tasman, Waikato, Wanganui-Manawatu, Wellington, West Coast) that are subdivided into 57 districts and 16 cities* (Ashburton, Auckland*, Banks Peninsula, Buller, Carterton, Central Hawke's Bay, Central Otago, Christchurch*, Clutha, Dunedin*, Far North, Franklin, Gisborne, Gore, Grey, Hamilton*, Hastings, Hauraki, Horowhenua, Hurunui, Hutt*, Invercargill*, Kaikoura, Kaipara, Kapiti Coast, Kawerau, Mackenzie, Manawatu, Manukau*, Marlborough, Masterton, Matamata Piako, Napier*, Nelson*, New Plymouth, North Shore*, Opotiki, Otorohanga, Palmerston North*, Papakura*, Porirua*, Queenstown Lakes, Rangitikei, Rodney, Rotorua, Ruapehu, Selwyn, Southland, South Taranaki, South Waikato, South Wairarapa, Stratford, Tararua, Tasman, Taupo, Tauranga, Thames Coromandel, Timaru, Upper Hutt*, Waikato, Waimakariri, Waimate, Waipa, Wairoa, Waitakere*, Waitaki, Waitomo, Wanganui, Wellington*, Western Bay of Plenty, Westland, Whakatane, Whangarei)
Dependent areas:
Definition Field Listing
Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
26 September 1907 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
consists of a series of legal documents, including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand Parliaments and The Constitution Act 1986 which is the principal formal charter
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English law, with special land legislation and land courts for Maoris; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Dame Silvia CARTWRIGHT (since 4 April 2001)
head of government: Prime Minister Helen CLARK (since 10 December 1999) and Deputy Prime Minister James (Jim) ANDERTON (since 10 December 1999)
cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general for a three-year term; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral House of Representatives - commonly called Parliament (120 seats; members elected by popular vote in single-member constituencies to serve three-year terms)
elections: last held 27 November 1999 (next must be called by November 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NZLP 49, NP 39, Alliance 10, ACT New Zealand 9, Green Party 7, NZFP 5, UNZ 1
note: NZLP and Alliance formed the government coalition; the National Party is the opposition party
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
High Court; Court of Appeal
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
ACT, New Zealand [Richard PREBBLE]; Alliance (a coalition of the New Labor Party, Democratic Party, New Zealand Liberal Party, and Mana Motuhake) [James (Jim) ANDERTON]; Green Party [Jeanette FITZSIMONS and Rod DONALD]; National Party or NP [William (Bill) English]; New Zealand First Party or NZFP [Winston PETERS]; New Zealand Labor Party or NZLP [Helen CLARK]; United New Zealand or UNZ [Peter DUNNE]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ABEDA, ANZUS (US suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986), APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, C, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NSG, OECD, OPCW, PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMOP, UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador L. John WOOD
chancery: 37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington, DC 20008
FAX: [1] (202) 667-5227
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
telephone: [1] (202) 328-4800
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Charles J. SWINDELLS
embassy: 29 Fitzherbert Terrace, Thorndon, Wellington
mailing address: P. O. Box 1190, Wellington; PSC 467, Box 1, FPO AP 96531-1001
telephone: [64] (4) 462-6000
FAX: [64] (4) 478-1701
consulate(s) general: Auckland
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation
   Economy    New Zealand
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Since 1984 the government has accomplished major economic restructuring, transforming New Zealand from an agrarian economy dependent on concessionary British market access to a more industrialized, free market economy that can compete globally. This dynamic growth has boosted real incomes (but left behind many at the bottom of the ladder), broadened and deepened the technological capabilities of the industrial sector, and contained inflationary pressures. While per capita incomes have been rising, however, they remain below the level of the four largest EU economies, and there is some government concern that New Zealand is not closing the gap. New Zealand is heavily dependent on trade - particularly in agricultural products - to drive growth, and it has been affected by the global economic slowdown and the slump in commodity prices. Thus far the New Zealand economy has been relatively resilient, achieving about 3% growth in 2001, but the New Zealand business cycle tends to lag the US cycle by about six months, so the worst of the downturn may not hit until mid-2002.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $75.4 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.1% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $19,500 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 8%
industry: 23%
services: 69% (1999)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 0.3%
highest 10%: 29.8% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
2.6% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
1.92 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
services 65%, industry 25%, agriculture 10% (1995)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
5.5% (2001 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $16.7 billion
expenditures: $16.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY00/01)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
food processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machinery, transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism, mining
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
35.823 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 26.55%
hydro: 66.45%
other: 7% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
33.315 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
wheat, barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits, vegetables; wool, beef, dairy products; fish
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$14.2 billion (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
dairy products, meat, wood and wood products, fish, machinery
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Australia 20.4%, US 14.5%, Japan 13.5%, UK 5.4%, South Korea, China (2000)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$12.5 billion (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, vehicles and aircraft, petroleum, electronics, textiles, plastics
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Australia 22.5%, US 17.5%, Japan 11%, UK 4%, China, Germany (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$31.1 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - donor:
Definition Field Listing
ODA, $99.7 million (FY00/01)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
New Zealand dollar (NZD)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
NZD
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
New Zealand dollars per US dollar - 2.3535 (January 2002), 2.3776 (2001), 2.1863 (2000), 1.8886 (1999), 1.8632 (1998), 1.5083 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 July - 30 June
   Communications    New Zealand
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
1.92 million (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
2.2 million (2000)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: excellent domestic and international systems
domestic: NA
international: submarine cables to Australia and Fiji; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 124, FM 290, shortwave 4 (1998)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
3.75 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
41 (plus 52 medium-power repeaters and over 650 low-power repeaters) (1997)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
1.926 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.nz
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
36 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
1.78 million (2001)
   Transportation    New Zealand
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3,908 km
narrow gauge: 3,908 km 1.067-m gauge (506 km electrified) (2001)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 92,200 km
paved: 53,568 km (including at least 144 km of expressways)
unpaved: 38,632 km (1996)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
1,609 km
note: of little importance in satisfying total transportation requirements
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum products 160 km; natural gas 1,000 km; liquefied petroleum gas or LPG 150 km
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Tauranga, Wellington
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 68,427 GRT/106,627 DWT
note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Australia 1 (2002 est.)
ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 1, container 1, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
106 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 44
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 28
under 914 m: 3 (2001)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 62
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 24
under 914 m: 37 (2001)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2001)
   Military    New Zealand
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New Zealand Air Force
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
20 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,010,316 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 850,185 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 26,480 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$515.6 million (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
1.2% (FY2001/02)
   Transnational Issues    New Zealand
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross Dependency)

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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