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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Paraguay  
Flag of Paraguay
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Paraguay

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Paraguay
Background:
Definition Field Listing
In the disastrous War of the Triple Alliance (1865-70), Paraguay lost two-thirds of all adult males and much of its territory. It stagnated economically for the next half century. In the Chaco War of 1932-35, large, economically important areas were won from Bolivia. The 35-year military dictatorship of Alfredo STROESSNER was overthrown in 1989, and, despite a marked increase in political infighting in recent years, relatively free and regular presidential elections have been held since then.
   Geography    Paraguay
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Central South America, northeast of Argentina
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
23 00 S, 58 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
South America
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 406,750 sq km
water: 9,450 sq km
land: 397,300 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than California
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3,920 km
border countries: Argentina 1,880 km, Bolivia 750 km, Brazil 1,290 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
subtropical to temperate; substantial rainfall in the eastern portions, becoming semiarid in the far west
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
grassy plains and wooded hills east of Rio Paraguay; Gran Chaco region west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the river, and dry forest and thorny scrub elsewhere
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: junction of Rio Paraguay and Rio Parana 46 m
highest point: Cerro Pero (Cerro Tres Kandu) 842 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
hydropower, timber, iron ore, manganese, limestone
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 94% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
670 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
local flooding in southeast (early September to June); poorly drained plains may become boggy (early October to June)
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation; water pollution; inadequate means for waste disposal present health risks for many urban residents; loss of wetlands
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; lies between Argentina, Bolivia, and Brazil; population concentrated in southern part of country
   People    Paraguay
Population:
Definition Field Listing
5,884,491 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 38.7% (male 1,156,366; female 1,119,558)
15-64 years: 56.6% (male 1,671,721; female 1,658,683)
65 years and over: 4.7% (male 128,137; female 150,026) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.57% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
30.5 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
4.69 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
28.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 74.16 years
female: 76.77 years (2002 est.)
male: 71.67 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
4.07 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.11% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
3,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
220 (1999 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Paraguayan(s)
adjective: Paraguayan
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
mestizo (mixed Spanish and Amerindian) 95%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 90%, Mennonite, and other Protestant
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Spanish (official), Guarani (official)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.1%
male: 93.5%
female: 90.6% (1995 est.)
   Government    Paraguay
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Paraguay
conventional short form: Paraguay
local short form: Paraguay
local long form: Republica del Paraguay
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Asuncion
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
17 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital city*; Alto Paraguay, Alto Parana, Amambay, Asuncion*, Boqueron, Caaguazu, Caazapa, Canindeyu, Central, Concepcion, Cordillera, Guaira, Itapua, Misiones, Neembucu, Paraguari, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
14 May 1811 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 14 May (1811)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
promulgated 20 June 1992
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on Argentine codes, Roman law, and French codes; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court of Justice
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal and compulsory up to age 75
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Luis Angel GONZALEZ MACCHI (since 28 March 1999); Vice President Julio Cesar FRANCO (since NA August 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Luis Angel GONZALEZ MACCHI (since 28 March 1999); Vice President Julio Cesar FRANCO (since NA August 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 10 May 1998 (next to be held NA May 2003)
note: President Luis Angel GONZALEZ MACCHI, formerly president of the Chamber of Senators, constitutionally succeeded President Raul CUBAS Grau, who resigned after being impeached soon after the assassination of Vice President Luis Maria ARGANA; the successor to ARGANA was decided in an election held in August 2000
election results: Raul CUBAS Grau elected president; percent of vote - 55.3%; resigned 28 March 1999
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (45 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (80 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Colorado Party 25, PLRA 13, PEN 7; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Colorado Party 45, PLRA 26, PEN 9
elections: Chamber of Senators - last held 10 May 1998 (next to be held NA May 2003); Chamber of Deputies - last held 10 May 1998 (next to be held NA May 2003)
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges appointed on the proposal of the Counsel of Magistrates or Consejo de la Magistratura)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Authentic Radical Liberal Party or PLRA [Miguel Abdon SAGUIER]; Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Luis Miguel ANDRADA Nogues]; Febrerista Revolutionary Party or PRF [Oscar ACUNA TORRES]; National Encounter Party or PEN [Mario PAZ CASTAING]; National Republican Association - Colorado Party [Nicanor DUARTE FRUTOS]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Ahorristas Estafados or AE; National Workers Central or CNT; Paraguayan Workers Confederation or CPT; Roman Catholic Church; Unitary Workers Central or CUT
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MONUC, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Leila Teresa RACHID COWLES
chancery: 2400 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
consulate(s) general: Kansas City, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York
FAX: [1] (202) 234-4508
telephone: [1] (202) 483-6960 through 6962
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador David N. GREENLEE
embassy: 1776 Avenida Mariscal Lopez, Casilla Postal 402, Asuncion
mailing address: Unit 4711, APO AA 34036-0001
telephone: [595] (21) 213-715
FAX: [595] (21) 213-728
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal, horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue with an emblem centered in the white band; unusual flag in that the emblem is different on each side; the obverse (hoist side at the left) bears the national coat of arms (a yellow five-pointed star within a green wreath capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles); the reverse (hoist side at the right) bears the seal of the treasury (a yellow lion below a red Cap of Liberty and the words Paz y Justicia (Peace and Justice) capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles)
   Economy    Paraguay
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Paraguay has a market economy marked by a large informal sector. The informal sector features both reexport of imported consumer goods to neighboring countries as well as the activities of thousands of microenterprises and urban street vendors. Because of the importance of the informal sector, accurate economic measures are difficult to obtain. A large percentage of the population derives their living from agricultural activity, often on a subsistence basis. The formal economy grew by an average of about 3% annually in 1995-97, but GDP declined slightly in 1998, 1999, and 2000. On a per capita basis, real income has stagnated at 1980 levels. Most observers attribute Paraguay's poor economic performance to political uncertainty, corruption, lack of progress on structural reform, substantial internal and external debt, and deficient infrastructure.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $26.2 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $4,600 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 29%
industry: 26%
services: 45% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
36% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 0.5%
highest 10%: 43.8% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
57.7 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
7.2% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
2 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 45%
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
17.8% (2001 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $1.3 billion
expenditures: $2 billion, including capital expenditures of $700 million (1999 est.)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
sugar, cement, textiles, beverages, wood products
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
53.056 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 0.04%
hydro: 99.85%
other: 0.11% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
1.95 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
47.392 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, sugarcane, soybeans, corn, wheat, tobacco, cassava (tapioca), fruits, vegetables; beef, pork, eggs, milk; timber
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$2.2 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
electricity, soybeans, feed, cotton, meat, edible oils
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Brazil 39%, Uruguay 14%, Argentina 11% (2000)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$2.7 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
road vehicles, consumer goods, tobacco, petroleum products, electrical machinery
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Argentina 25.4%, Brazil 24.5%, Uruguay 3.8% (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$2.9 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$NA
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
guarani (PYG)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
PYG
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
guarani per US dollar - 4,783.0 (January 2002), 4,107.7 (2001), 3,486.4 (2000), 3,119.1 (1999), 2,726.5 (1998), 2,177.9 (1997); note - since early 1998, the exchange rate has operated as a managed float; prior to that, the exchange rate was determined freely in the market
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Paraguay
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
290,475 (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
510,000 (2001)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: meager telephone service; principal switching center is Asuncion
domestic: fair microwave radio relay network
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 46, FM 27, shortwave 6 (three inactive) (1998)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
925,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
4 (2001)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
990,000 (2001)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.py
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
4 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
20,000 (2000)
   Transportation    Paraguay
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 971 km
standard gauge: 441 km 1.435-m gauge
note: there are 470 km of various gauges that are privately owned
narrow gauge: 60 km 1.000-m gauge
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 25,901 km
paved: 3,067 km
unpaved: 22,834 km (2001)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
3,100 km
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Asuncion, Villeta, San Antonio, Encarnacion
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 21 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 34,623 GRT/36,821 DWT
ships by type: cargo 14, chemical tanker 1, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 3
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Argentina 2, Japan 1 (2002 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
899 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 11
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 888
1,524 to 2,437 m: 28
914 to 1,523 m: 332
under 914 m: 528 (2001)
   Military    Paraguay
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy (includes Naval Air and Marines), Air Force
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
17 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,427,160 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,028,935 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 58,359 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$125 million (FY98)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
1.4% (FY98)
   Transnational Issues    Paraguay
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
major illicit producer of cannabis, most or all of which is consumed in South America; transshipment country for Andean cocaine headed for Brazil, other Southern Cone markets, Europe, and US

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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