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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Papua New Guinea  
Flag of Papua New Guinea
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Papua New Guinea

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Papua New Guinea
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The eastern half of the island of New Guinea - second largest in the world - was divided between Germany (north) and the UK (south) in 1885. The latter area was transferred to Australia in 1902, which occupied the northern portion during World War I and continued to administer the combined areas until independence in 1975. A nine-year secessionist revolt on the island of Bougainville ended in 1997, after claiming some 20,000 lives.
   Geography    Papua New Guinea
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Asia, group of islands including the eastern half of the island of New Guinea between the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean, east of Indonesia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
6 00 S, 147 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Oceania
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 462,840 sq km
land: 452,860 sq km
water: 9,980 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 820 km
border countries: Indonesia 820 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
5,152 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling foothills
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Wilhelm 4,509 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
gold, copper, silver, natural gas, timber, oil, fisheries
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 1%
other: 99% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
NA sq km
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
active volcanism; situated along the Pacific "Ring of Fire"; the country is subject to frequent and sometimes severe earthquakes; mud slides; tsunamis
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
rain forest subject to deforestation as a result of growing commercial demand for tropical timber; pollution from mining projects; severe drought
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
shares island of New Guinea with Indonesia; one of world's largest swamps along southwest coast
   People    Papua New Guinea
Population:
Definition Field Listing
5,172,033 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 38.6% (male 1,013,936; female 980,841)
15-64 years: 57.7% (male 1,544,650; female 1,440,628)
65 years and over: 3.7% (male 90,661; female 101,317) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.39% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
31.61 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
7.75 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
56.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 63.83 years
female: 66.03 years (2002 est.)
male: 61.73 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
4.21 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.22% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
5,400 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
450 (1999 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Papua New Guinean(s)
adjective: Papua New Guinean
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Melanesian, Papuan, Negrito, Micronesian, Polynesian
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 22%, Lutheran 16%, Presbyterian/Methodist/London Missionary Society 8%, Anglican 5%, Evangelical Alliance 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1%, other Protestant 10%, indigenous beliefs 34%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
English spoken by 1%-2%, pidgin English widespread, Motu spoken in Papua region
note: 715 indigenous languages
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 64.5%
male: 72%
female: 57% (2000)
   Government    Papua New Guinea
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Independent State of Papua New Guinea
conventional short form: Papua New Guinea
abbreviation: PNG
former: Territory of Papua and New Guinea
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional monarchy with parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Port Moresby
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
20 provinces; Bougainville, Central, Chimbu, Eastern Highlands, East New Britain, East Sepik, Enga, Gulf, Madang, Manus, Milne Bay, Morobe, National Capital, New Ireland, Northern, Sandaun, Southern Highlands, Western, Western Highlands, West New Britain
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
16 September 1975 (from the Australian-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 16 September (1975)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
16 September 1975
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Silas ATOPARE (since 13 November 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Sir Mekere MORAUTA (since 14 July 1999); Deputy Prime Minister Michael OGIO (since 3 November 2000)
cabinet: National Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the National Executive Council; prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general for up to five years on the basis of majority support in National Parliament
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Parliament - sometimes referred to as the House of Assembly (109 seats, 89 elected from open electorates and 20 from provincial electorates; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 14-28 June 1997 (next to be held 15 June 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - PPP 15%, Pangu Pati 14%, NA 14%, PDM 8%, PNC 6%, PAP 5%, UP 3%, NP 1%, PUP 1%, independents 33%; seats by party - PPP 16, Pangu Pati 15, NA 15, PDM 9, PNC 7, PAP 5, UP 3, NP 1, PUP 1, independents 37; note - association with political parties is very fluid
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (the chief justice is appointed by the governor general on the proposal of the National Executive Council after consultation with the minister responsible for justice; other judges are appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Melanesian Alliance Party or MAP [leader NA]; National Alliance or NA [George MANDA, party president]; National Front Party [leader NA]; National Party or NP [Michael MEL]; Papua New Guinea Revival Party [John PUNDARI]; Papua New Guinea United Party or Pangu Pati [Chris HAIVETA]; People's Action Party or PAP [Ted DIRO]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Sir Mekere MORAUTA]; People's Labor Party or PLP [Peter YAMA]; People's National Congress or PNC [Bill SKATE]; People's Progress Party or PPP [Michael NALI]; People's Unity Party or PUP [Alfred KAIABE]; United Party or UP [Rimbiuk PATO]
note: more than 40 political parties have registered to participate in the June 2002 elections
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACP, APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (associate member), C, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OPCW, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Nagora Y. BOGAN
chancery: 1779 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Suite 805, Washington, DC 20036
FAX: [1] (202) 745-3679
telephone: [1] (202) 745-3680
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Susan S. JACOBS
embassy: Douglas Street, Port Moresby
mailing address: P. O. Box 1492, Port Moresby
telephone: [675] 321-1455
FAX: [675] 321-3423
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
divided diagonally from upper hoist-side corner; the upper triangle is red with a soaring yellow bird of paradise centered; the lower triangle is black with five, white, five-pointed stars of the Southern Cross constellation centered
   Economy    Papua New Guinea
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Papua New Guinea is richly endowed with natural resources, but exploitation has been hampered by rugged terrain and the high cost of developing infrastructure. Agriculture provides a subsistence livelihood for 85% of the population. Mineral deposits, including oil, copper, and gold, account for 72% of export earnings. The economy has declined over the past two years and will probably continue to falter in 2002. Prime Minister Mekere MORAUTA has tried to restore integrity to state institutions, stabilize the kina, restore stability to the national budget, privatize public enterprises where appropriate, and ensure ongoing peace on Bougainville. The government has had considerable success in attracting international support, specifically gaining the support of the IMF and the World Bank in securing development assistance loans. Significant challenges remain for MORAUTA, however, including gaining further investor confidence, specifically for the proposed Papua New Guinea-Australia oil pipeline, continuing efforts to privatize government assets, and maintaining the support of members of Parliament.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $12.2 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-2.5% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $2,400 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 30.4%
industry: 36.8%
services: 32.8% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
37%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 40.5% (1996)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
50.9 (1996)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
10.3% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
2.3 million (1999)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 85%, industry NA%, services NA%
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $894 million
expenditures: $1.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $344 million (2000 est.)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
copra crushing, palm oil processing, plywood production, wood chip production; mining of gold, silver, and copper; crude oil production; construction, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
1.65 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 54.55%
hydro: 45.45%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
1.535 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels, tea, rubber, sweet potatoes, fruit, vegetables; poultry, pork
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$1.8 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
oil, gold, copper ore, logs, palm oil, coffee, cocoa, crayfish, prawns
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Australia 30%, Japan 11%, China 6%, Germany 4%, South Korea 4%, UK 3%, Philippines 1%, US 1% (2000)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$1.024 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, fuels, chemicals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Australia 50%, Singapore 20%, Japan 4%, NZ 4%, Indonesia 3%, Malaysia 3%, US 2% (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$2.6 billion (2000 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$400 million (1999 est.)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
kina (PGK)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
PGK
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
kina per US dollar - 3.706 (January 2002), 3.374 (2001), 2.765 (2000), 2.539 (1999), 2.058 (1998), 1.434 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Papua New Guinea
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
61,152 (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
3,053 (1996)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: services are adequate and being improved; facilities provide radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio, aeronautical radio, and international radio communication services
domestic: mostly radiotelephone
international: submarine cables to Australia and Guam; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); international radio communication service
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 8, FM 19, shortwave 28 (1998)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
410,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
3 (all in the Port Moresby area)
note: additional stations at Mt. Hagen, Goroka, Lae, and Rabaul are planned (2002)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
59,841 (1999)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.pg
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
3 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
135,000 (2001)
   Transportation    Papua New Guinea
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 19,600 km
paved: 686 km
unpaved: 18,914 km (1996)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
10,940 km
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Kieta, Lae, Madang, Port Moresby, Rabaul
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 40,911 GRT/58,723 DWT
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Singapore 2, United Kingdom 7 (2002 est.)
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 10, chemical tanker 1, combination ore/oil 3, container 1, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 3
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
490 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 21
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
under 914 m: 1 (2001)
914 to 1,523 m: 4
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 469
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 57
under 914 m: 402 (2001)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
2 (2001)
   Military    Papua New Guinea
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Papua New Guinea Defense Force (includes Ground Force, Maritime Operations Element, and Air Operations Element)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,338,003 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 740,085 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$42 million (FY98)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
1% (FY98)
   Transnational Issues    Papua New Guinea
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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