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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Singapore  
Flag of Singapore
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Singapore

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Singapore
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Founded as a British trading colony in 1819, Singapore joined Malaysia in 1963, but withdrew two years later and became independent. It subsequently became one of the world's most prosperous countries, with strong international trading links (its port is one of the world's busiest) and with per capita GDP equal to that of the leading nations of Western Europe.
   Geography    Singapore
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
1 22 N, 103 48 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Southeast Asia
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 692.7 sq km
water: 10 sq km
land: 682.7 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly more than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
193 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
exclusive fishing zone: within and beyond territorial sea, as defined in treaties and practice
territorial sea: 3 NM
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - Northeastern monsoon from December to March and Southwestern monsoon from June to September; inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water catchment area and nature preserve
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Singapore Strait 0 m
highest point: Bukit Timah 166 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
fish, deepwater ports
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 98% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
NA sq km
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
industrial pollution; limited natural fresh water resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes
   People    Singapore
Population:
Definition Field Listing
4,452,732 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 17.6% (male 404,212; female 378,660)
15-64 years: 75.3% (male 1,630,696; female 1,724,532)
65 years and over: 7.1% (male 137,512; female 177,120) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.46% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
12.78 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
4.28 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
26.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 80.29 years
female: 83.47 years (2002 est.)
male: 77.34 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.23 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.19% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
4,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
210 (1999 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Singaporean(s)
adjective: Singapore
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Chinese 76.7%, Malay 14%, Indian 7.9%, other 1.4%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Buddhist (Chinese), Muslim (Malays), Christian, Hindu, Sikh, Taoist, Confucianist
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Chinese (official), Malay (official and national), Tamil (official), English (official)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.5%
male: 97%
female: 89.8% (1999)
   Government    Singapore
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Singapore
conventional short form: Singapore
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Singapore
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
none
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
9 August 1965 (from Malaysia)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 9 August (1965)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
3 June 1959, amended 1965 (based on preindependence State of Singapore Constitution)
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
21 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Sellapan Rama (S. R.) NATHAN (since 1 September 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Chok Tong GOH (since 28 November 1990) and Deputy Prime Ministers Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Hsien Loong LEE (since 28 November 1990) and Keng Yam Tony TAN (since 1 August 1995)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 28 August 1999 (next to be held by August 2005); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president; deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
election results: Sellapan Rama (S. R.) NATHAN elected president unopposed
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Parliament (84 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); note - in addition, there are up to nine nominated members; the losing opposition candidate who came closet to winning a seat may be appointed as a "nonconstituency" member
elections: last held 3 November 2001 (next to be held 25 June 2007)
election results: percent of vote by party - PAP 75.3% (in contested constituencies), other 24.7%; seats by party - PAP 82, WP 1, SDA 1
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the president with the advice of the prime minister, other judges are appointed by the president with the advice of the chief justice); Court of Appeals
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [leader NA]; People's Action Party or PAP [Chok Tong GOH, secretary general] - the governing party; Singapore Democratic Alliance or SDA [CHIAM See Tong] (includes Singapore People's Party or SPP [CHIAM See Tong], Singapore Democratic Party or SDP [CHEE Soon Juan], National Solidarity Party [leader NA], Singapore Justice Party [leader NA], and Singapore Malay National Organization [leader NA]); Workers' Party or WP [J. B. JEYARETNAM]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, BIS, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNTAET, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Heng Chee CHAN
consulate(s): New York
consulate(s) general: San Francisco
FAX: [1] (202) 537-0876
telephone: [1] (202) 537-3100
chancery: 3501 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Franklin L. LAVIN
embassy: 27 Napier Road, Singapore 258508
mailing address: PSC Box 470, FPO AP 96534-0001
telephone: [65] 476-9100
FAX: [65] 476-9340
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars arranged in a circle
   Economy    Singapore
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Singapore, a highly developed and successful free-market economy, enjoys a remarkably open and corruption-free environment, stable prices, and one of the highest per capita GDPs in the world. The economy depends heavily on exports, particularly in electronics and manufacturing, and was hard hit in 2001 by the global recession and the slump in the technology sector. In 2001, GDP contracted by 2.2%. The economy is expected to recover in 2002 in response to improvements in the US economy, and GDP growth for 2002 is projected to be 3% to 4%. In the longer term the government hopes to establish a new growth path that will be less vulnerable to the external business cycle than the current export-led model, but is unlikely to abandon efforts to establish Singapore as Southeast Asia's financial and high-tech hub.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $106.3 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-2.2% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $24,700 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: NEGL%
industry: 33%
services: 67% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
1.5% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
2.19 million (2000)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
financial, business, and other services 35%, manufacturing 21%, construction 13%, transportation and communication 9%, other 22%
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
4.7% (2001 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $27.9 billion
expenditures: $19.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.4 billion (FY00/01 est.)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, entrepot trade, biotechnology
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-17.5% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
27.9 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
25.947 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
rubber, copra, fruit, orchids, vegetables; poultry, eggs, fish, ornamental fish
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$122 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment (including electronics), consumer goods, chemicals, mineral fuels
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Malaysia 18%, US 17%, Hong Kong 8%, Japan 7.5%, Taiwan 6%, Thailand 4.3%, China 4%, South Korea 3.6%, Germany 3%, Netherlands 3% (2000)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$116 billion (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, chemicals, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Japan 17%, Malaysia 17%, US 15%, China 5%, Taiwan 4.4%, Thailand 4.3%, South Korea 3.6%, Saudi Arabia 3% (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$8.3 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$NA
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Singapore dollar (SGD)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
SGD
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Singapore dollars per US dollar - 1.8388 (January 2002), 1.7917 (2001), 1.7240 (2000), 1.6950 (1999), 1.6736 (1998), 1.4848 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 April - 31 March
   Communications    Singapore
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
1.95 million (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
2.74 million (2000)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: major consideration given to serving business interests; excellent international service
domestic: excellent domestic facilities
international: submarine cables to Malaysia (Sabah and Peninsular Malaysia), Indonesia, and the Philippines; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean region)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 0, FM 16, shortwave 2 (1998)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
2.6 million (2000)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
6 (2000)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
1.33 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.sg
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
9 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
2.12 million (2001)
   Transportation    Singapore
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 38.6 km
narrow gauge: 38.6 km 1.000-m gauge
note: there is also a 83 km mass transit system with 48 stations
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3,150 km
paved: 3,066 km (including 150 km of expressways)
unpaved: 84 km (2000)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
none
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Singapore
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 876 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,686,612 GRT/32,647,743 DWT
ships by type: bulk 131, cargo 100, chemical tanker 81, combination bulk 10, combination ore/oil 6, container 168, liquefied gas 35, livestock carrier 2, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, petroleum tanker 287, refrigerated cargo 6, roll on/roll off 5, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 11, vehicle carrier 32
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Australia 7, Belgium 6, China 12, Denmark 27, Germany 17, Greece 4, Hong Kong 44, Indonesia 8, Japan 52, Malaysia 4, Monaco 22, Netherlands 2, Norway 42, Philippines 6, Russia 3, Slovenia 1, South Korea 10, Sweden 13, Switzerland 7, Taiwan 46, Tanzania 2, Thailand 22, United Arab Emirates 4, United Kingdom 14, United States 1 (2002 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
9 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 9
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2001)
   Military    Singapore
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy, Air Force, People's Defense Force, Police Force
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,354,857 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 986,101 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$4.47 billion (FY01/02 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
4.9% (FY01/02)
   Transnational Issues    Singapore
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Singapore and Malaysia are considering taking the unresolved dispute over Pulau Batu Putih (Pedra Branca Island) to ICJ; Malaysia concerned over Singapore's land reclamation works on Johor, which affects the maritime boundary, shipping lanes, and water ecology in the Tebrau Reach
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
as a transportation and financial services hub, Singapore is vulnerable, despite strict laws and enforcement, to use as a transit point for Golden Triangle heroin and as a venue for money laundering

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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