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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Svalbard  
Flag of Svalbard
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Svalbard

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Svalbard
Background:
Definition Field Listing
First discovered by the Norwegians in the 12th century, the islands served as an international whaling base during the 17th and 18th centuries. Norway's sovereignty was recognized in 1920; five years later it officially took over the territory.
   Geography    Svalbard
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Northern Europe, islands between the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, and Norwegian Sea, north of Norway
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
78 00 N, 20 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Arctic Region
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 62,049 sq km
note: includes Spitsbergen and Bjornoya (Bear Island)
water: 0 sq km
land: 62,049 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
3,587 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM unilaterally claimed by Norway but not recognized by Russia
territorial sea: 4 NM
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
arctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current; cool summers, cold winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and north coasts of Spitsbergen, keeping water open and navigable most of the year
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
wild, rugged mountains; much of high land ice covered; west coast clear of ice about one-half of the year; fjords along west and north coasts
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Arctic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Newtontoppen 1,717 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
coal, copper, iron ore, phosphate, zinc, wildlife, fish
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (no trees, and the only bushes are crowberry and cloudberry) (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
NA sq km
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
ice floes often block the entrance to Bellsund (a transit point for coal export) on the west coast and occasionally make parts of the northeastern coast inaccessible to maritime traffic
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
northernmost part of the Kingdom of Norway; consists of nine main islands; glaciers and snowfields cover 60% of the total area
   People    Svalbard
Population:
Definition Field Listing
2,868 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: NA%
15-64 years: NA%
65 years and over: NA%
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-1.99% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA births/1,000 population
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: NA years
male: NA years
female: NA years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA children born/woman
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
0% (2001)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
0 (2001)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
0 (2001)
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Norwegian 55.4%, Russian and Ukrainian 44.3%, other 0.3% (1998)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Russian, Norwegian
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
NA
   Government    Svalbard
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Svalbard (sometimes referred to as Spitzbergen)
Dependency status:
Definition Field Listing
territory of Norway; administered by the Polar Department of the Ministry of Justice, through a governor (sysselmann) residing in Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen; by treaty (9 February 1920) sovereignty was awarded to Norway
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Longyearbyen
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
none (territory of Norway)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: King HARALD V of Norway (since 17 January 1991)
head of government: Governor Morten RUUD (since NA November 1998) and Assistant Governor Odd Redar HUMLEGAARD (since NA)
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor and assistant governor responsible to the Polar Department of the Ministry of Justice
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
none
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
the flag of Norway is used
   Economy    Svalbard
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Coal mining is the major economic activity on Svalbard. The treaty of 9 February 1920 gives the 41 signatories equal rights to exploit mineral deposits, subject to Norwegian regulation. Although US, UK, Dutch, and Swedish coal companies have mined in the past, the only companies still mining are Norwegian and Russian. The settlements on Svalbard are essentially company towns. The Norwegian state-owned coal company employs nearly 60% of the Norwegian population on the island, runs many of the local services, and provides most of the local infrastructure. There is also some trapping of seal, polar bear, fox, and walrus.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $NA
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $NA
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $11.5 million
expenditures: $11.5 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
NA kWh
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: NA%
other: NA%
hydro: NA%
nuclear: NA%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
NA kWh
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$NA
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$NA
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$8.2 million from Norway (1998)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Norwegian krone (NOK)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
NOK
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Norwegian kroner per US dollar - 8.9684 (January 2002), 8.9917 (2001), 8.8018 (2000), 7.7992 (1999), 7.5451 (1998), 7.0734 (1997)
   Communications    Svalbard
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: probably adequate
domestic: local telephone service
international: satellite earth station - 1 of unknown type (for communication with Norwegian mainland only)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 1, FM 1 (plus 2 repeaters), shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.sj
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
13 (Svalbard and Jan Mayen) (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
NA
   Transportation    Svalbard
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
none
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Barentsburg, Longyearbyen, Ny-Alesund, Pyramiden
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
none (2002 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
4 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3
under 914 m: 3 (2001)
   Military    Svalbard
Military - note:
Definition Field Listing
demilitarized by treaty (9 February 1920)
   Transnational Issues    Svalbard
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
despite recent discussions, Russia and Norway dispute their maritime limits in the Barents Sea and Russia's fishing rights beyond Svalbard's territorial limits within the Svalbard Treaty zone

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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