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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Sweden  
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Sweden

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Sweden
Background:
Definition Field Listing
A military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not participated in any war in almost two centuries. An armed neutrality was preserved in both World Wars. Sweden's long-successful economic formula of a capitalist system interlarded with substantial welfare elements was challenged in the 1990s by high unemployment, rising maintenance costs, and a declining position in world markets. Indecision over the country's role in the political and economic integration of Europe delayed Sweden's entry into the EU until 1995, and waived the introduction of the euro in 1999.
   Geography    Sweden
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
62 00 N, 15 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 449,964 sq km
water: 39,030 sq km
land: 410,934 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,205 km
border countries: Finland 586 km, Norway 1,619 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
3,218 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
territorial sea: 12 NM (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Kebnekaise 2,111 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
zinc, iron ore, lead, copper, silver, timber, uranium, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 93% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
1,150 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
acid rain damage to soils and lakes; pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas
   People    Sweden
Population:
Definition Field Listing
8,876,744 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 18% (male 817,688; female 776,018)
15-64 years: 64.7% (male 2,922,095; female 2,824,770)
65 years and over: 17.3% (male 651,120; female 885,053) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.02% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
9.81 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
10.6 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 79.84 years
female: 82.64 years (2002 est.)
male: 77.19 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.54 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.08% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
3,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
less than 100 (1999 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Swede(s)
adjective: Swedish
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
indigenous population: Swedes and Finnish and Sami minorities; foreign-born or first-generation immigrants: Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Lutheran 87%, Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, Buddhist
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Swedish
note: small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1979 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%
   Government    Sweden
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden
conventional short form: Sweden
local short form: Sverige
local long form: Konungariket Sverige
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Stockholm
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarnas, Gavleborgs, Gotlands, Hallands, Jamtlands, Jonkopings, Kalmar, Kronobergs, Norrbottens, Orebro, Ostergotlands, Skane, Sodermanlands, Stockholms, Uppsala, Varmlands, Vasterbottens, Vasternorrlands, Vastmanlands, Vastra Gotalands
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Flag Day, 6 June
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
1 January 1975
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the monarch (born 14 July 1977)
head of government: Prime Minister Goran PERSSON (since 21 March 1996)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister elected by the Parliament; election last held NA September 1998 (next to be held 20 September 2002)
election results: Goran PERSSON reelected prime minister with 131 out of 349 votes
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 20 September 1998 (next to be held 15 September 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - Social Democrats 36.5%, Moderates 22.7%, Left Party 12%, Christian Democrats 11.8%, Center Party 5.1%, Liberal Party 4.7%, Greens 4.5%; seats by party - Social Democrats 131, Moderates 82, Left Party 43, Christian Democrats 42, Center Party 18, Liberal Party 17, Greens 16
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Hogsta Domstolen (judges are appointed by the prime minister and the cabinet)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Center Party [Maud OLOFSSON]; Christian Democratic Party [Alf SVENSSON]; Communist Workers' Party [Rolf HAGEL]; Green Party [no formal leader but party spokespersons are Maria WETTERSTRAND and Peter ERIKSSON]; Left Party or VP (formerly Communist) [Gudrun SCHYMAN]; Liberal People's Party [Lars LEIJONBORG]; Moderate Party (conservative) [Bo LUNDGREN]; Social Democratic Party [Goran PERSSON]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 6, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Jan ELIASSON
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York
FAX: [1] (202) 467-2699
telephone: [1] (202) 467-2600
chancery: 1501 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20005-1702
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Charles A. HEIMBOLD, Jr.
embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds VAG 31, SE-11589 Stockholm
mailing address: American Embassy Stockholm, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5750 (pouch)
telephone: [46] (08) 783 53 00
FAX: [46] (08) 661 19 64
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
blue with a golden yellow cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)
   Economy    Sweden
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Aided by peace and neutrality for the whole 20th century, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. It has a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external communications, and a skilled labor force. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms account for about 90% of industrial output, of which the engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. Agriculture accounts for only 2% of GDP and 2% of the jobs. The government's commitment to fiscal discipline resulted in a substantive budgetary surplus in 2001, but is expected to shrink somewhat in 2002, due to the global economic slowdown, tax cuts, and spending increases. The Swedish central bank (the Riksbank) is focusing on price stability with an inflation target of 2% for 2002.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $219 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.6% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $24,700 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 2%
industry: 28.7%
services: 69.3% (2000)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 20.1% (1992)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
25 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
2.7% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
4.4 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 2%, industry 24%, services 74% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.9% (2001 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $119 billion
expenditures: $110 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
4.5% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
144.621 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 6.06%
hydro: 53.81%
other: 2.72% (2000)
nuclear: 37.41%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
139.176 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
13.628 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
18.306 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$96 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery 35%, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
EU 53.6% (Germany 10.6%, UK 9.1%, Denmark 5.3%, France 5.1%), US 9.5%, Norway 7.5% (2000)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$89.2 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
EU 60.3% (Germany 16.3%, UK 8.8%, Denmark 6.7%, France 5.6%), Norway 8.2%, US 6.7% (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$66.5 billion (1994)
Economic aid - donor:
Definition Field Listing
ODA, $1.7 billion (1997)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Swedish krona (SEK)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
SEK
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Swedish kronor per US dollar - 10.4381 (January 2002), 10.3291 (2001), 9.1622 (2000), 8.2624 (1999), 7.9499 (1998), 7.6349 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Sweden
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
6.017 million (December 1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
3.835 million (October 1998)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: excellent domestic and international facilities; automatic system
domestic: coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels
international: 5 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 1, FM 265, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
8.25 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
169 (plus 1,299 repeaters) (1995)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
4.6 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.se
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
29 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
5.64 million (2000)
   Transportation    Sweden
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 12,821 km
standard gauge: 12,600 km 1.435-m gauge (7,918 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 221 km 0.891-m gauge (2001)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 210,760 km
paved: 162,707 km (including 1,428 km of expressways)
unpaved: 48,053 km (1999)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
2,052 km
note: navigable to small steamers and barges
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
natural gas 84 km
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Gavle, Goteborg, Halmstad, Helsingborg, Hudiksvall, Kalmar, Karlshamn, Malmo, Solvesborg, Stockholm, Sundsvall
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 174 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,255,344 GRT/1,609,844 DWT
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Denmark 8, Finland 8, Germany 3, Italy 3, Japan 2, Norway 7 (2002 est.)
ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 37, chemical tanker 33, combination ore/oil 4, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 27, railcar carrier 1, roll on/roll off 38, short-sea passenger 4, specialized tanker 6, vehicle carrier 18
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
255 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 147
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 27
under 914 m: 25 (2001)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 80
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 108
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 102 (2001)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2001)
   Military    Sweden
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Royal Navy (including Coast Artillery and Naval Helicopter Service), Air Force
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
19 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,060,205 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,800,991 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 51,506 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$4,395,100,000 (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
2.1% (FY01)
   Transnational Issues    Sweden
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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