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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Trinidad and Tobago  
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Trinidad and Tobago

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Trinidad and Tobago
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The islands came under British control in the 19th century; independence was granted in 1962. The country is one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean thanks largely to petroleum and natural gas production and processing. Tourism, mostly in Tobago, is targeted for expansion and is growing.
   Geography    Trinidad and Tobago
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
11 00 N, 61 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 5,128 sq km
land: 5,128 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Delaware
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
362 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: 200 NM or to the outer edge of the continental margin
contiguous zone: 24 NM
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; rainy season (June to December)
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly plains with some hills and low mountains
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: El Cerro del Aripo 940 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, natural gas, asphalt
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 15%
permanent crops: 9%
other: 76% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
30 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
water pollution from agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes, and raw sewage; oil pollution of beaches; deforestation; soil erosion
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
Pitch Lake, on Trinidad's southwestern coast, is the world's largest natural reservoir of asphalt
   People    Trinidad and Tobago
Population:
Definition Field Listing
1,163,724 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 23% (male 136,807; female 131,177)
15-64 years: 70.2% (male 419,847; female 396,643)
65 years and over: 6.8% (male 35,146; female 44,104) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.52% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
13.66 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
8.81 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-10.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
24.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 68.59 years
female: 71.25 years (2002 est.)
male: 66.04 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.8 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.05% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
7,800 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
530 (1999 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s)
adjective: Trinidadian, Tobagonian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
black 39.5%, East Indian (a local term - primarily immigrants from northern India) 40.3%, mixed 18.4%, white 0.6%, Chinese and other 1.2%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 29.4%, Hindu 23.8%, Anglican 10.9%, Muslim 5.8%, Presbyterian 3.4%, other 26.7%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
English (official), Hindi, French, Spanish, Chinese
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94% (2000)
male: 95.9% (1999)
female: 91.7% (1999)
   Government    Trinidad and Tobago
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
conventional short form: Trinidad and Tobago
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Port-of-Spain
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
8 counties, 3 municipalities*, and 1 ward**; Arima*, Caroni, Mayaro, Nariva, Port-of-Spain*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint Patrick, San Fernando*, Tobago**, Victoria
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
31 August 1962 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 31 August (1962)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
1 August 1976
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Arthur Napoleon Raymond ROBINSON (since 18 March 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Patrick MANNING (since 24 December 2001)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed from among the members of Parliament
elections: president elected by an electoral college, which consists of the members of the Senate and House of Representatives, for a five-year term; election last held 10 December 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); the president usually appoints as prime minister the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives
election results: Arthur Napoleon Raymond ROBINSON elected president; percent of electoral college vote - 69%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (31 seats; members appointed by the president for a maximum term of five years) and the House of Representatives (36 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 10 December 2001 (next to be held by December 2006)
note: Tobago has a unicameral House of Assembly, with 15 members serving four-year terms
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote - UNC 49.9%, PNM 46.5%; seats by party - UNC 18, PNM 18
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court of Judicature (comprised of the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeals; the chief justice is appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister and the leader of the opposition; other justices are appointed by the president on the advice of the Judicial and Legal Service Commission); High Court of Justice; Court of Appeals the highest court of appeal is the Privy Council in London
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
National Alliance for Reconstruction or NAR [Hochoy CHARLES]; People's Empowerment Party or PEP [leader NA]; People's National Movement or PNM [Patrick MANNING]; Team Unity or TUN [Ramesh MAHARAJ]; United National Congress or UNC [Basdeo PANDAY]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Jamaat-al Musilmeen [Yasin BAKR]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACP, C, Caricom, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Mackisack LOGIE
chancery: 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
consulate(s) general: Miami and New York
FAX: [1] (202) 785-3130
telephone: [1] (202) 467-6490
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Roy AUSTIN
embassy: 15 Queen's Park West, Port-of-Spain
mailing address: P. O. Box 752, Port-of-Spain
telephone: [1] (868) 622-6371 through 6376
FAX: [1] (868) 628-5462
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the upper hoist side
   Economy    Trinidad and Tobago
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Trinidad and Tobago has earned a reputation as an excellent investment site for international businesses. A leading performer in the past 4 years has been the booming natural gas sector. Tourism is a growing sector, although not proportionately as important as in many other Caribbean islands. The expected recovery of the global economy, along with anticipated higher oil prices, are plus factors for 2002. Negative factors are persistent high unemployment and the political uncertainties following the contentious selection of a new government in December 2001.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $10.6 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
4% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $9,000 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 1.6%
industry: 43.2%
services: 55.2% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
21% (1992 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
5.6% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
564,000 (2000)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
construction and utilities 12.4%, manufacturing, mining, and quarrying 14%, agriculture 9.5%, services 64.1% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
11.8% (2001)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $1.54 billion
expenditures: $1.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $117.3 million (1998)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement, beverage, cotton textiles
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
4.2% (2001)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
5.153 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 99.59%
hydro: 0%
other: 0.41% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
4.792 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cocoa, sugarcane, rice, citrus, coffee, vegetables; poultry
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$4.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, steel products, fertilizer, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus, flowers
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 45.9%, Caricom countries 26.1%, Latin America 9.5%, EU 5.7% (1999)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$3.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, live animals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 39.8%, Venezuela 11.9%, EU 11%, Caricom 4.8% (1999)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$2.2 billion (2000 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$24 million (1999 est.)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Trinidad and Tobago dollar (TTD)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
TTD
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Trinidad and Tobago dollars per US dollar - 6.2466 (January 2002), 6.2332 (2001), 6.2998 (2000), 6.2989 (1999), 6.2983 (1998), 6.2517 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 October - 30 September
   Communications    Trinidad and Tobago
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
252,000 (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
17,411 (1997)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: excellent international service; good local service
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Guyana
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 2, FM 12, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
680,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
4 (1997)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
425,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.tt
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
17 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
42,800 (2001)
   Transportation    Trinidad and Tobago
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
minimal agricultural railroad system near San Fernando; common carrier railway service was discontinued in 1968 (2001)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 8,320 km
paved: 4,252 km
unpaved: 4,068 km (1996)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
none
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
crude oil 1,032 km; petroleum products 19 km; natural gas 904 km
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Pointe-a-Pierre, Point Fortin, Point Lisas, Port-of-Spain, Scarborough, Tembladora
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,910 GRT/7,546 DWT
ships by type: cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1
note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: United States 1 (2002 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
6 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (2001)
   Military    Trinidad and Tobago
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force (including Ground Force, Coast Guard, and Air Wing), Trinidad and Tobago Police Service
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 347,831 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 248,324 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$90 million (1999)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
1.4% (1999)
   Transnational Issues    Trinidad and Tobago
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe; producer of cannabis

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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