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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Sao Tome and Principe  
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Sao Tome and Principe

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Sao Tome and Principe
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Discovered and claimed by Portugal in the late 15th century, the islands' sugar-based economy gave way to coffee and cocoa in the 19th century - all grown with plantation slave labor, a form of which lingered into the 20th century. Although independence was achieved in 1975, democratic reforms were not instituted until the late 1980s. The first free elections were held in 1991.
   Geography    Sao Tome and Principe
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Western Africa, islands in the Gulf of Guinea, straddling the Equator, west of Gabon
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
1 00 N, 7 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,001 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 1,001 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
more than five times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
209 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
territorial sea: 12 NM
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
volcanic, mountainous
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico de Sao Tome 2,024 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
fish, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 41%
other: 57% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
100 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation; soil erosion and exhaustion
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
the smallest country in Africa; the two main islands form part of a chain of extinct volcanoes and both are fairly mountainous
   People    Sao Tome and Principe
Population:
Definition Field Listing
170,372 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 47.7% (male 41,159; female 40,125)
15-64 years: 48.3% (male 39,701; female 42,586)
65 years and over: 4% (male 3,115; female 3,686) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.18% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
42.3 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
7.32 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-3.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
47.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 65.93 years
female: 67.45 years (2002 est.)
male: 64.47 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
5.95 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Sao Tomean(s)
adjective: Sao Tomean
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
mestico, angolares (descendants of Angolan slaves), forros (descendants of freed slaves), servicais (contract laborers from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde), tongas (children of servicais born on the islands), Europeans (primarily Portuguese)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Christian 80% (Roman Catholic, Evangelical Protestant, Seventh-Day Adventist)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Portuguese (official)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 79.3%
male: 85%
female: 62% (1991 est.)
   Government    Sao Tome and Principe
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe
conventional short form: Sao Tome and Principe
local short form: Sao Tome e Principe
local long form: Republica Democratica de Sao Tome e Principe
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Sao Tome
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
2 provinces; Principe, Sao Tome
note: Principe has had self-government since 29 April 1995
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
12 July 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 12 July (1975)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
approved March 1990; effective 10 September 1990
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on Portuguese legal system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Fradique DE MENEZES (since 3 September 2001)
election results: Fradique DE MENEZES elected president in Sao Tome's third multiparty presidential election; percent of vote - NA%
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 29 July 2001 (next to be held NA July 2006); prime minister chosen by the National Assembly and approved by the president
head of government: Prime Minister Gabriel Arcanjo Ferreira DA COSTA (since 8 April 2002)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the proposal of the prime minister
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (55 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 3 March 2002 (next to be held NA March 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party - MLSTP 39.6%, Force for Change Democratic Movement 39.4%, Ue-Kedadji coalition 16.2%; seats by party - MLSTP 24, Force for Change Democratic Movement 23, Ue-Kedadji coalition 8
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the National Assembly)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Democratic Renovation Party [Armindo GRACA]; Force for Change Democratic Movement [leader NA]; Independent Democratic Action or ADI [Carlos NEVES]; Movement for the Liberation of Sao Tome and Principe-Social Democratic Party or MLSTP-PSD [Manuel Pinto Da COSTA]; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Aldo BANDEIRA]; Ue-Kedadji coalition [leader NA]; other small parties
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
Sao Tome and Principe does not have an embassy in the US, but does have a Permanent Mission to the UN, headed by First Secretary Domingos Augusto FERREIRA, located at 400 Park Avenue, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10022, telephone [1] (212) 317-0580
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
the US does not have an embassy in Sao Tome and Principe; the Ambassador to Gabon is accredited to Sao Tome and Principe on a nonresident basis and makes periodic visits to the islands
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three horizontal bands of green (top), yellow (double width), and green with two black five-pointed stars placed side by side in the center of the yellow band and a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
   Economy    Sao Tome and Principe
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
This small poor island economy has become increasingly dependent on cocoa since independence 26 years ago. However, cocoa production has substantially declined because of drought and mismanagement. The resulting shortage of cocoa for export has created a persistent balance-of-payments problem. Sao Tome has to import all fuels, most manufactured goods, consumer goods, and a substantial amount of food. Over the years, it has been unable to service its external debt and has had to depend on concessional aid and debt rescheduling. Sao Tome benefited from $200 million in debt relief in December 2000 under the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) program. Sao Tome's success in implementing structural reforms has been rewarded by international donors, who have pledged increased assistance in 2001. Considerable potential exists for development of a tourist industry, and the government has taken steps to expand facilities in recent years. The government also has attempted to reduce price controls and subsidies. Sao Tome is also optimistic that substantial petroleum discoveries are forthcoming in its territorial waters in the oil-rich waters of the Gulf of Guinea. Corruption scandals continue to weaken the economy.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $189 million (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
4% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $1,200 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 25%
industry: 10%
services: 65% (1999 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
7% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
population mainly engaged in subsistence agriculture and fishing
note: shortages of skilled workers
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $58 million
expenditures: $114 million, including capital expenditures of $54 million (1993 est.)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
light construction, textiles, soap, beer; fish processing; timber
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
17 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 41.18%
hydro: 58.82%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
15.81 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels, copra, cinnamon, pepper, coffee, bananas, papayas, beans; poultry; fish
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$4.1 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
cocoa 90%, copra, coffee, palm oil
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Portugal 33.3%, Netherlands 8.3%, Spain 8.3% (1999)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$40 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and electrical equipment, food products, petroleum products
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Portugal 43%, France 15.7%, UK 13.7% (1999)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$253.8 million (2000)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$200 million in December 2000 under the HIPC program
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
dobra (STD)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
STD
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
dobras per US dollar - 9,009.1 (December 2001), 8,842.1 (2001), 7,978.2 (2000), 7,119.0 (1999), 6,883.2 (1998), 4,552.5 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Sao Tome and Principe
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
3,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
6,942 (1997)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: adequate facilities
domestic: minimal system
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 2, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
38,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
2 (1997)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
23,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.st
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
2 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
6,500 (2001)
   Transportation    Sao Tome and Principe
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 320 km
paved: 218 km
unpaved: 102 km (1996)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
none
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Santo Antonio, Sao Tome
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 41 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 169,991 GRT/245,996 DWT
ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 23, chemical tanker 1, container 3, livestock carrier 1, petroleum tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 2, specialized tanker 1
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Egypt 1, Greece 1, Kenya 1, Portugal 1, Syria 1, Turkey 1 (2002 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
2 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2001)
   Military    Sao Tome and Principe
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy, Security Police
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 35,524 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 18,727 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$400,000 (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
0.8% (FY01)
   Transnational Issues    Sao Tome and Principe
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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