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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Uruguay  
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Uruguay

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Uruguay
Background:
Definition Field Listing
A violent Marxist urban guerrilla movement, the Tupamaros, launched in the late 1960s, led Uruguay's president to agree to military control of his administration in 1973. By the end of the year the rebels had been crushed, but the military continued to expand its hold throughout the government. Civilian rule was not restored until 1985. Uruguay's political and labor conditions are among the freest on the continent.
   Geography    Uruguay
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Argentina and Brazil
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
33 00 S, 56 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
South America
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 176,220 sq km
land: 173,620 sq km
water: 2,600 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than the state of Washington
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,564 km
border countries: Argentina 579 km, Brazil 985 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
660 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
contiguous zone: 24 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Cerro Catedral 514 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
arable land, hydropower, minor minerals, fisheries
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 93% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
1,800 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
seasonally high winds (the pampero is a chilly and occasional violent wind which blows north from the Argentine pampas), droughts, floods; because of the absence of mountains, which act as weather barriers, all locations are particularly vulnerable to rapid changes from weather fronts
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
water pollution from meat packing/tannery industry; inadequate solid/hazardous waste disposal
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
second-smallest South American country (after Suriname); most of the low-lying landscape (three-quarters of the country) is grassland, ideal for cattle and sheep raising
   People    Uruguay
Population:
Definition Field Listing
3,386,575 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 24.4% (male 422,826; female 402,324)
15-64 years: 62.6% (male 1,047,740; female 1,072,032)
65 years and over: 13% (male 181,522; female 260,131) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.79% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
17.28 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
9 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
14.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 75.66 years
female: 79.17 years (2002 est.)
male: 72.32 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.35 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.33% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
6,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
150 (1999 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Uruguayan(s)
adjective: Uruguayan
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
white 88%, mestizo 8%, black 4%, Amerindian, practically nonexistent
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 66% (less than half of the adult population attends church regularly), Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, nonprofessing or other 31%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Spanish, Portunol, or Brazilero (Portuguese-Spanish mix on the Brazilian frontier)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.3%
male: 96.9%
female: 97.7% (1995 est.)
   Government    Uruguay
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Oriental Republic of Uruguay
conventional short form: Uruguay
local short form: Uruguay
former: Banda Oriental, Cisplatine Province
local long form: Republica Oriental del Uruguay
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Montevideo
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
19 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno, Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo, Treinta y Tres
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
25 August 1825 (from Brazil)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 25 August (1825)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
27 November 1966, effective February 1967, suspended 27 June 1973, new constitution rejected by referendum 30 November 1980; two constitutional reforms approved by plebiscite 26 November 1989 and 7 January 1997
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on Spanish civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Jorge BATLLE Ibanez (since 1 March 2000) and Vice President Luis HIERRO (since 1 March 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jorge BATLLE Ibanez (since 1 March 2000) and Vice President Luis HIERRO (since 1 March 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president with parliamentary approval
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 31 October 1999, with runoff election on 28 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results: Jorge BATLLE Ibanez elected president; percent of vote - Jorge BATLLE Ibanez 52% in a runoff against Tabare VAZQUEZ 44%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral General Assembly or Asamblea General consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (30 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and Chamber of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (99 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Senators - last held 31 October 1999 (next to be held NA 2004); Chamber of Representatives - last held 31 October 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Encuentro Progresista 12, Colorado Party 10, Blanco 7, New Sector/Space Coalition 1; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Encuentro Progresista 40, Colorado Party 33, Blanco 22, New Sector/Space Coalition 4
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and elected for 10-year terms by the General Assembly)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Colorado Party [Jorge BATLLE Ibanez]; National Party or Blanco [Luis Alberto LACALLE Herrera]; New Sector/Space Coalition or Nuevo Espacio [Rafael MICHELINI]; Progressive Encounter/Broad Front Coalition or Encuentro Progresista/Frente Amplio [Tabare VAZQUEZ]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMOGIP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNTAET, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Hugo FERNANDEZ-FAINGOLD
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, and New York
FAX: [1] (202) 331-8142
telephone: [1] (202) 331-1313 through 1316
chancery: 1913 I Street NW, Washington, DC 20006
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Martin J. SILVERSTEIN
embassy: Lauro Muller 1776, Montevideo 11200
mailing address: APO AA 34035
telephone: [598] (2) 418-7777
FAX: [598] (2) 410-0022
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
nine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and bottom) alternating with blue; there is a white square in the upper hoist-side corner with a yellow sun bearing a human face known as the Sun of May and 16 rays alternately triangular and wavy
   Economy    Uruguay
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Uruguay's economy is characterized by an export-oriented agricultural sector, a well-educated workforce, and high levels of social spending. After averaging growth of 5% annually in 1996-98, in 1999-2001 the economy suffered from lower demand in Argentina and Brazil, which together account for nearly half of Uruguay's exports. Despite the severity of the trade shocks, Uruguay's financial indicators remained more stable than those of its neighbors, a reflection of its solid reputation among investors and its investment-grade sovereign bond rating - one of only two in South America. Challenges for the government of President Jorge BATLLE include reducing the budget deficit, expanding Uruguay's trade ties beyond its Mercosur trade partners, and reducing the costs of public services. GDP fell by 1.3% in 2000 and by 1.5% in 2001.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $31 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-1.5% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $9,200 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 6%
industry: 29%
services: 65% (2001)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
6% (1997)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 25.8% (1997)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
42.3 (1989)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
3.6% (2001)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
1.2 million (2001)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 14%, industry 16%, services 70%
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
15.2% (2001)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $3.7 billion
expenditures: $4.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $500 million (2000)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
food processing, electrical machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, textiles, chemicals, beverages
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-2.4% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
7.527 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 6.64%
hydro: 92.83%
other: 0.53% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
7.35 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
950 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
1.3 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
rice, wheat, corn, barley; livestock; fish
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$2.24 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
meat, rice, leather products, wool, vehicles, dairy products
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Mercosur partners 40%, EU 20%, US 8% (2001 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$2.9 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery, chemicals, road vehicles, crude petroleum
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Mercosur partners 44%, EU 18%, US 9% (2001 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$7.7 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$NA
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Uruguayan peso (UYU)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
UYU
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Uruguayan pesos per US dollar - 14.3325 (January 2002), 13.3191 (2001), 12.0996 (2000), 11.3393 (1999), 10.4719 (1998), 9.4418 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Uruguay
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
929,141 (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
350,000 (2001)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: fully digitalized
domestic: most modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo; new nationwide microwave radio relay network
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2002)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 91, FM 149, shortwave 7 (2001)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
1.97 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
20 (2001)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
782,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.uy
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
14 (2001)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
370,000 (2001)
   Transportation    Uruguay
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,993 km
standard gauge: 2,993 km 1.435-m gauge
note: of the total route length, 461 km have been taken out of service and 460 km are in only partial use; moreover, not all lines offer passenger service (2001)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 8,764 km
paved: 7,800 km
unpaved: 964 km (2001)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
1,600 km (used by coastal and shallow-draft river craft)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Colonia, Fray Bentos, Juan La Caze, La Paloma, Montevideo, Nueva Palmira, Paysandu, Punta del Este, Piriapolis
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,752 GRT/5,228 DWT
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Argentina 4, Greece 1 (2002 est.)
ships by type: petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
64 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 2 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 49
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 16
under 914 m: 31 (2001)
   Military    Uruguay
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy (including Naval Air Arm, Coast Guard, Marines), Air Force, Police (Coracero Guard, Grenadier Guard)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 824,395 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 666,880 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$250 million (1999)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
1.1% (2000)
   Transnational Issues    Uruguay
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
uncontested dispute with Brazil over islands in the Rio Quarai (Rio Cuareim) and the Arroio Invernada (Arroyo de la Invernada)

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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