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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Samoa  
Flag of Samoa
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Samoa

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Samoa
Background:
Definition Field Listing
New Zealand occupied the German protectorate of Western Samoa at the outbreak of World War I in 1914. It continued to administer the islands as a mandate and then as a trust territory until 1962, when the islands became the first Polynesian nation to reestablish independence in the 20th century. The country dropped the "Western" from its name in 1997.
   Geography    Samoa
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
13 35 S, 172 20 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Oceania
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,944 sq km
water: 10 sq km
land: 2,934 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Rhode Island
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
403 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; rainy season (October to March), dry season (May to October)
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
narrow coastal plain with volcanic, rocky, rugged mountains in interior
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mauga Silisili 1,857 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
hardwood forests, fish, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 19%
permanent crops: 24%
other: 57% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
NA sq km
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
occasional typhoons; active volcanism
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
soil erosion
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
occupies an almost central position within Polynesia
   People    Samoa
Population:
Definition Field Listing
178,631 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 30.6% (male 27,774; female 26,854)
15-64 years: 63.5% (male 71,358; female 42,150)
65 years and over: 5.9% (male 4,859; female 5,636) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.25% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
15.53 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
6.35 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-11.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.69 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.39 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
30.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 69.8 years
female: 72.69 years (2002 est.)
male: 67.06 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.3 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Samoan(s)
adjective: Samoan
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Samoan 92.6%, Euronesians 7% (persons of European and Polynesian blood), Europeans 0.4%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Christian 99.7% (about one-half of population associated with the London Missionary Society; includes Congregational, Roman Catholic, Methodist, Latter-Day Saints, Seventh-Day Adventist)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Samoan (Polynesian), English
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 80%
male: 81%
female: 79% (1999)
   Government    Samoa
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Independent State of Samoa
conventional short form: Samoa
former: Western Samoa
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional monarchy under native chief
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Apia
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
11 districts; A'ana, Aiga-i-le-Tai, Atua, Fa'asaleleaga, Gaga'emauga, Gagaifomauga, Palauli, Satupa'itea, Tuamasaga, Va'a-o-Fonoti, Vaisigano
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
1 January 1962 (from New Zealand-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day Celebration, 1 June (1962); note - 1 January 1962 is the date of independence from the New Zealand-administered UN trusteeship, 1 June 1962 is the date that independence is celebrated
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
1 January 1962
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law and local customs; judicial review of legislative acts with respect to fundamental rights of the citizen; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Chief Tanumafili II MALIETOA (cochief of state from 1 January 1962 until becoming sole chief of state 5 April 1963)
head of government: Prime Minister Sailele Malielegaoi TUILA'EPA (since 24 November 1998); note - TUILA'EPA served as deputy prime minister from 1992 until he assumed the prime ministership in November 1998, when former Prime Minister TOFILAU Eti Alesana resigned in poor health; the post of deputy prime minister is currently vacant
cabinet: Cabinet consists of 12 members, appointed by the chief of state with the prime minister's advice
elections: upon the death of Chief Tanumafili II MALIETOA, a new chief of state will be elected by the Legislative Assembly to serve a five-year term; prime minister appointed by the chief of state with the approval of the Legislative Assembly
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Legislative Assembly or Fono (49 seats - 47 elected by Samoans, 2 elected by non-Samoans; only chiefs or matai may stand for election to the Fono; members serve five-year terms)
elections: byelection last held NA November 2001 (next byelection to be held 29 March 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - HRPP 30, SNDP 13, independents 6
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court; Court of Appeal
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Christian Democratic Party [leader NA]; Human Rights Protection Party or HRPP [Sailele Malielegaoi TUILA'EPA, chairman]; Samoa All People's Party or SAPP [Matatumua NAIMOAGA]; Samoan National Development Party or SNDP [LE MAMEA Ropati, chairman] (opposition); Samoa National Party [FETU Tiatia, party secretary]; Samoan Progressive Conservative Party [LEOTA Ituau Ale]; Samoan United Independent Party or SUIP [leader NA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IMF, IMO, IOC, ITU, OPCW (signatory), Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Tuiloma Neroni SLADE
FAX: [1] (212) 599-0797
telephone: [1] (212) 599-6196, 6197
chancery: 800 Second Avenue, Suite 400D, New York, NY 10017
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: the Ambassador to New Zealand is accredited to Samoa
embassy: 5th floor, Beach Road, Apia
mailing address: P. O. Box 3430, Apia
telephone: [685] 21631
FAX: [685] 22030
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side quadrant bearing five white five-pointed stars representing the Southern Cross constellation
   Economy    Samoa
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
The economy of Samoa has traditionally been dependent on development aid, family remittances from overseas, and agricultural exports. The country is vulnerable to devastating storms. Agriculture employs two-thirds of the labor force, and furnishes 90% of exports, featuring coconut cream, coconut oil, and copra. The manufacturing sector mainly processes agricultural products. The decline of fish stocks in the area is a continuing problem. Tourism is an expanding sector, accounting for 16% of GDP; about 85,000 tourists visited the islands in 2000. The Samoan Government has called for deregulation of the financial sector, encouragement of investment, and continued fiscal discipline. Observers point to the flexibility of the labor market as a basic strength for future economic advances. Foreign reserves are in a relatively healthy state, the external debt is stable, and inflation is low.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $618 million (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
6% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $3,500 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 16%
industry: 18%
services: 66% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
2.5% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
90,000 (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 65%, services 30%, industry 5% (1995 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA%; note - substantial underemployment
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $105 million
expenditures: $119 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001/2002)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
food processing, building materials, auto parts
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.8% (2000)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
103 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 59.22%
hydro: 40.78%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
95.79 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
coconuts, bananas, taro, yams
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$17 million (f.o.b., 2000)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
fish, coconut oil and cream, copra, taro, garments, beer
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Australia 62%, Indonesia 13%, US 11%, American Samoa 3%, New Zealand 3% (2000)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$90 million (f.o.b., 2000)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, industrial supplies, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Australia 27%, US 26%, New Zealand 14%, Fiji 12%, Japan 9% (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$192 million (1999)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$42.9 million (1995)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
tala (WST)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
WST
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
tala per US dollar - 3.5236 (January 2002), 3.4722 (2001), 3.2712 (2000), 3.0120 (1999), 2.9429 (1998), 2.5562 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Samoa
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
8,183 (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
1,545 (February 1998)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: adequate
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 1, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
174,849 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
6 (1997)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
8,634 (1999)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.ws
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
2 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
500 (2000)
   Transportation    Samoa
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 836 km
paved: 267 km
unpaved: 569 km (1983)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
none
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Apia, Asau, Mulifanua, Salelologa
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,091 GRT/ 8,127 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1
note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Germany 1 (2002 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
3 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2001)
   Military    Samoa
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
no regular armed services; Samoa Police Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$NA
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Military - note:
Definition Field Listing
Samoa has no formal defense structure or regular armed forces; informal defense ties exist with NZ, which is required to consider any Samoan request for assistance under the 1962 Treaty of Friendship
   Transnational Issues    Samoa
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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