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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Swaziland  
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
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  Transportation
  Military
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In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Swaziland

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Swaziland
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Autonomy for the Swazis of southern Africa was guaranteed by the British in the late 19th century; independence was granted 1968. Student and labor unrest during the 1990s have pressured the monarchy (one of the oldest on the continent) to grudgingly allow political reform and greater democracy.
   Geography    Swaziland
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southern Africa, between Mozambique and South Africa
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
26 30 S, 31 30 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 17,363 sq km
water: 160 sq km
land: 17,203 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 535 km
border countries: Mozambique 105 km, South Africa 430 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
varies from tropical to near temperate
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Great Usutu River 21 m
highest point: Emlembe 1,862 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
asbestos, coal, clay, cassiterite, hydropower, forests, small gold and diamond deposits, quarry stone, and talc
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 1%
other: 89% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
690 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
drought
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
limited supplies of potable water; wildlife populations being depleted because of excessive hunting; overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South Africa
   People    Swaziland
Population:
Definition Field Listing
1,123,605
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 45.5% (male 254,573; female 256,677)
15-64 years: 51.9% (male 281,645; female 301,071)
65 years and over: 2.6% (male 12,027; female 17,612) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.63% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
39.59 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
23.26 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
109.43 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 37 years
female: 37.66 years (2002 est.)
male: 36.35 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
5.77 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
35.6% (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
212,000 (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
7,100 (1999 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Swazi(s)
adjective: Swazi
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
African 97%, European 3%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Zionist (a blend of Christianity and indigenous ancestral worship) 40%, Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 10%, Anglican, Bahai, Methodist, Mormon, Jewish and other 30%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
English (official, government business conducted in English), siSwati (official)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 78.3%
male: 78%
female: 78.4% (1999 est.)
   Government    Swaziland
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Kingdom of Swaziland
conventional short form: Swaziland
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
monarchy; independent member of Commonwealth
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Mbabane; note - Lobamba is the royal and legislative capital
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
4 districts; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini, Shiselweni
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
6 September 1968 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 6 September (1968)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
none; constitution of 6 September 1968 was suspended 12 April 1973; a new constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978, but was not formally presented to the people; since then a few more outlines for a constitution have been compiled under the Constitutional Review Commission (CRC), but so far none have been accepted
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on South African Roman-Dutch law in statutory courts and Swazi traditional law and custom in traditional courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986)
head of government: Prime Minister Sibusiso Barnabas DLAMINI (since 9 August 1996)
cabinet: Cabinet recommended by the prime minister and confirmed by the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament or Libandla, an advisory body, consists of the Senate (30 seats - 10 appointed by the House of Assembly and 20 appointed by the monarch; members serve five-year terms) and the House of Assembly (65 seats - 10 appointed by the monarch and 55 elected by popular vote; members serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Assembly - last held 16 and 24 October 1998 (next to be held NA 2003)
election results: House of Assembly - balloting is done on a nonparty basis; candidates for election are nominated by the local council of each constituency and for each constituency the three candidates with the most votes in the first round of voting are narrowed to a single winner by a second round
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
High Court; Court of Appeal; judges for both courts are appointed by the monarch
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
political parties are banned by the constitution - the following are considered political associations - Imbokodvo National Movement or INM [leader NA]; Ngwane National Libertatory Congress or NNLC [Obed DLAMINI, president]; People's United Democratic Movement or PUDEMO [Mario MASUKU, president]; Swaziland National Front or SWANAFRO [Elmond SHONGWE, president]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, PCA, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Madzandza KANYA
FAX: [1] (202) 234-8254
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5002
chancery: 1712 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador James D. McGEE
embassy: Central Bank Building, Warner Street, Mbabane
mailing address: P. O. Box 199, Mbabane
telephone: [268] 404-6441 through 404-6445
FAX: [268] 404-5959
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue; the red band is edged in yellow; centered in the red band is a large black and white shield covering two spears and a staff decorated with feather tassels, all placed horizontally
   Economy    Swaziland
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
In this small landlocked economy, subsistence agriculture occupies more than 80% of the population. Manufacturing features a number of agroprocessing factories. Mining has declined in importance in recent years: diamond mines have shut down because of the depletion of easily accessible reserves; high-grade iron ore deposits were depleted by 1978; and health concerns have cut world demand for asbestos. Exports of soft drink concentrate, sugar, and wood pulp are the main earners of hard currency. Surrounded by South Africa, except for a short border with Mozambique, Swaziland is heavily dependent on South Africa from which it receives nine-tenths of its imports and to which it sends more than two-thirds of its exports. Remittances from the Southern African Customs Union and Swazi workers in South African mines substantially supplement domestically earned income. The government is trying to improve the atmosphere for foreign investment. Overgrazing, soil depletion, drought, and sometimes floods persist as problems for the future. Prospects for 2002 are strengthened by the country's status as a beneficiary of the US African Growth and Opportunity Act initiative.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $4.6 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.5% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $4,200 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 10%
industry: 43%
services: 47% (1999 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
7.5% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
34% (2000 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $448 million
expenditures: $506.9 million, including capital expenditures of $147 million (FY01/02)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
mining (coal), wood pulp, sugar, soft drink concentrates, textile and apparel
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.7% (FY95/96)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
362 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 55.8%
other: 0% (2000)
hydro: 44.2%
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
900.66 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
564 million kWh
note: supplied by South Africa (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
sugarcane, cotton, corn, tobacco, rice, citrus, pineapples, sorghum, peanuts; cattle, goats, sheep
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$702 million (f.o.b., 2001)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
soft drink concentrates, sugar, wood pulp, cotton yarn, refrigerators, citrus and canned fruit
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
South Africa 72%, EU 12%, UK 6%, Mozambique 4%, US 4% (1999)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$850 million (f.o.b., 2001)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
South Africa 89%, EU 5%, Japan 2%, Singapore 2% (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$336 million (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$104 million (2001)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
lilangeni (SZL)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
SZL
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
emalangeni per US dollar - 11.5808 (January 2002), 8.4933 (2001), 6.9056 (2000), 6.1087 (1999), 5.4807 (1998), 4.6032 (1997); note - the Swazi lilangeni is at par with the South African rand; emalangeni is the plural form of lilangeni
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 April - 31 March
   Communications    Swaziland
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
38,500 (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
45,000 (2001)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: a somewhat modern but not an advanced system
domestic: system consists of carrier-equipped, open-wire lines and low-capacity, microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 3, FM 2 plus 4 repeaters, shortwave 3 (2001)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
170,000 (1999)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
5 plus 7 relay stations (2001)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
23,000 (2000)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.sz
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
6 (2001)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
6,000 (2001)
   Transportation    Swaziland
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 297 km
narrow gauge: 297 km 1.067-m gauge
note: includes 71 km which are not in use (2001)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3,800 km
paved: 1,064 km
unpaved: 2,736 km (2002)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
none
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
none
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
18 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 10 (2001)
   Military    Swaziland
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force (Army), Royal Swaziland Police Force
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 253,510 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 146,805 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$20 million (FY01/02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
4.75% (FY00/01)
   Transnational Issues    Swaziland
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Swaziland continues to press South Africa into ceding ethnic Swazi lands in Kangwane region of KwaZulu-Natal province that were long ago part of the Swazi Kingdom

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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