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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Zambia  
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Zambia

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Zambia
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the South Africa Company from 1891 until it was taken over by the UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration. The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule, but the subsequent vote in 1996 saw blatant harassment of opposition parties. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems with at least two parties filing legal petitions challenging the results. Opposition parties currently hold a majority of seats in the National Assembly.
   Geography    Zambia
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southern Africa, east of Angola
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
15 00 S, 30 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 752,614 sq km
water: 11,890 sq km
land: 740,724 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than Texas
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 5,664 km
border countries: Angola 1,110 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,930 km, Malawi 837 km, Mozambique 419 km, Namibia 233 km, Tanzania 338 km, Zimbabwe 797 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m
highest point: unnamed location in Mafinga Hills 2,301 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 93% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
460 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
tropical storms (November to April)
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zimbabwe
   People    Zambia
Population:
Definition Field Listing
9,959,037
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 47.1% (male 2,357,581; female 2,335,644)
15-64 years: 50.4% (male 2,497,360; female 2,519,227)
65 years and over: 2.5% (male 106,160; female 143,065) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.9% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
41.01 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
21.89 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
89.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 37.35 years
female: 37.66 years (2002 est.)
male: 37.05 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
5.43 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
19.95% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
870,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
99,000 (1999 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Zambian(s)
adjective: Zambian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
African 98.7%, European 1.1%, other 0.2%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Christian 50%-75%, Muslim and Hindu 24%-49%, indigenous beliefs 1%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
English (official), major vernaculars - Bemba, Kaonda, Lozi, Lunda, Luvale, Nyanja, Tonga, and about 70 other indigenous languages
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write English
total population: 78.9%
male: 85.7%
female: 72.6%
   Government    Zambia
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Zambia
conventional short form: Zambia
former: Northern Rhodesia
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Lusaka
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
9 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
24 October 1964 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 24 October (1964)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
2 August 1991
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Levy MWANAWASA (since 2 January 2002); Vice President Enoch KAVINDELE (since 4 May 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Levy MWANAWASA (since 2 January 2002); Vice President Enoch KAVINDELE (since 4 May 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 27 December 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); vice president appointed by the president
election results: Levy MWANAWASA elected president; percent of vote - Levy MWANAWASA 29%, Anderson MAZOKA 27%, Christon TEMBO 13%, Tilyenji KAUNDA 10%, Godfrey MIYANDA 8%, Benjamin MWILA 5%, Michael SATA 3%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Assembly (150 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 27 December 2001 (next to be held NA 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party - MMD 45.9%, UPND 32.4%, UNIP 8.8%, FDD 8.1%, HP 2.7%, PF 0.7%, ZRP 0.7%, independents 0.7%; seats by party - MMD 68, UPND 48, UNIP 13, FDD 12, HP 4, PF 1, ZRP 1, independents 1; seats not determined 2
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (the final court of appeal; justices are appointed by the president); High Court (has unlimited jurisdiction to hear civil and criminal cases)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Agenda for Zambia or AZ [Inonge MBIKUSITA-LEWANIKA]; Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Christon TEMBO]; Heritage Party or HP [Godfrey MIYANDA]; Liberal Progressive Front or LPF [Roger CHONGWE, president]; Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Frederick CHILUBA, president]; National Citizens Coalition or NCC [Nevers MUMBA, president]; National Leadership for Development or NLD [Yobert SHAMAPANDE]; National Party or NP [Dr. Sam CHIPUNGU]; Patriotic Front or PF [Michael SATA]; Zambian Republican Party or ZRP [Benjamin MWILA]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Gwendoline Konie]; United National Independence Party or UNIP [Francis NKHOMA, president]; United Party for National Development or UPND [Anderson MAZOKA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIK, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Atan SHANSONGA
FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719
chancery: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador David B. DUNN
embassy: corner of Independence and United Nations Avenues
mailing address: P. O. Box 31617, Lusaka
telephone: [260] (1) 250-955
FAX: [260] (1) 252-225
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
green with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag
   Economy    Zambia
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Despite progress in privatization and budgetary reform, Zambia's economy has a long way to go. Privatization of government-owned copper mines relieved the government from covering mammoth losses generated by the industry and greatly improved the chances for copper mining to return to profitability and spur economic growth. However, low mineral prices have slowed the benefits from privatizing the mines and reduced incentives for further private investment in the sector. In late 2000, Zambia was determined to be eligible for debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative, but Zambia has not yet finalized its Poverty Reduction Strategy paper. Unemployment rates remain high, but GDP growth should continue at about 4%. Inflation should remain close to 20%.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $8.5 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.9% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $870 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 24%
industry: 25%
services: 51% (2000)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
86% (1993 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 1.1%
highest 10%: 41% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
52.6 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
21.5% (2001)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
3.4 million
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 85%, industry 6%, services 9%
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
50% (2000 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $1.2 billion
expenditures: $1.25 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
copper mining and processing, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticulture
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
5.1% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
7.822 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 0.51%
hydro: 99.49%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
5.838 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
1.536 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
100 million kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seed, vegetables, flowers, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca); cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, milk, eggs, hides; coffee
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$876 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
copper 55%, cobalt, electricity, tobacco, flowers, cotton
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
UK 25.2%, South Africa 24.5%, Switzerland 9.4%, Malawi 7.5% (2000)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$12.05 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, electricity, fertilizer; foodstuffs, clothing
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
South Africa 67.1%, UK 9.8%, Zimbabwe 7.5%, US 5.9% (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$5.8 billion (2001)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$651 million (2000 est.)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Zambian kwacha (ZMK)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
ZMK
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Zambian kwacha per US dollar - 3,848.65 (January 2002), 3,610.94 (2001), 3,110.84 (2000), 2,388.02 (1999), 1,862.07 (1998), 1,314.50 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Zambia
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
130,000 (including more than 40,000 fixed telephones in wireless local loop connections) (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
75,000 (2001)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: facilities are aging but still among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa
domestic: high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular telephone services in operation; Internet service is widely available; very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks are operated by private firms
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 19, FM 5, shortwave 4 (2001)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
1.2 million (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
9 (2002)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
277,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.zm
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
5 (2001)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
15,000 (2000)
   Transportation    Zambia
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,157 km
narrow gauge: 2,157 km 1.067-m gauge (13 km double-track)
note: the total includes 891 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA), which operates 1,860 km of 1.067-m narrow gauge track between Dar es Salaam and Kapiri Mposhi where it connects to the Zambia Railways system; TAZARA is not a part of the Zambia Railways system; Zambia Railways assets are scheduled for concessioning (2002)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 66,781 km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km (1997 est.)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
2,250 km
note: includes Lake Tanganyika and the Zambezi and Luapula rivers
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
crude oil 1,724 km
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Mpulungu
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
111 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 11
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 100
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 66
under 914 m: 30 (2001)
   Military    Zambia
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Air Force, Police, paramilitary forces
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,313,567 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,228,385 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$32.5 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
0.9% (FY01)
   Transnational Issues    Zambia
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transshipment point for moderate amounts of methaqualone, small amounts of heroin, and cocaine bound for Southern Africa and possibly Europe; regional money-laundering center

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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