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The World Factbook 2002

         
  Zimbabwe  
Flag of Zimbabwe
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.


This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


Map of Zimbabwe

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Zimbabwe
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The UK annexed Southern Rhodesia from the South Africa Company in 1923. A 1961 constitution was formulated that favored whites in power. In 1965 the government unilaterally declared its independence, but the UK did not recognize the act and demanded more complete voting rights for the black African majority in the country (then called Rhodesia). UN sanctions and a guerrilla uprising finally led to free elections in 1979 and independence (as Zimbabwe) in 1980. Robert MUGABE, the nation's first prime minister, has been the country's only ruler (as president since 1987) and has dominated the country's political system since independence.
   Geography    Zimbabwe
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southern Africa, between South Africa and Zambia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
20 00 S, 30 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing
total: 390,580 sq km
water: 3,910 sq km
land: 386,670 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than Montana
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3,066 km
border countries: Botswana 813 km, Mozambique 1,231 km, South Africa 225 km, Zambia 797 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld); mountains in east
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: junction of the Runde and Save rivers 162 m
highest point: Inyangani 2,592 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 8%
permanent crops: 1%
other: 91% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
1,170 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation; soil erosion; land degradation; air and water pollution; the black rhinoceros herd - once the largest concentration of the species in the world - has been significantly reduced by poaching; poor mining practices have led to toxic waste and heavy metal pollution
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zambia; in full flood (February-April) the massive Victoria Falls on the river forms the world's largest curtain of falling water
   People    Zimbabwe
Population:
Definition Field Listing
11,376,676
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 37.9% (male 2,178,073; female 2,128,287)
15-64 years: 58.4% (male 3,376,850; female 3,268,315)
65 years and over: 3.7% (male 213,286; female 211,865) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.05% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
24.59 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
24.06 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
NEGL migrant(s)/1,000 population
note: there is a small but steady flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa in search of better paid employment (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
62.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 36.5 years
female: 35.1 years (2002 est.)
male: 37.87 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.21 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
25.06% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
1.5 million (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
160,000 (1999 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Zimbabwean(s)
adjective: Zimbabwean
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
African 98% (Shona 82%, Ndebele 14%, other 2%), mixed and Asian 1%, white less than 1%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs) 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs 24%, Muslim and other 1%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
English (official), Shona, Sindebele (the language of the Ndebele, sometimes called Ndebele), numerous but minor tribal dialects
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write English
total population: 85%
male: 90%
female: 80% (1995 est.)
   Government    Zimbabwe
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Zimbabwe
conventional short form: Zimbabwe
former: Southern Rhodesia, Rhodesia
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Harare
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
8 provinces and 2 cities* with provincial status; Bulawayo*, Harare*, Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo, Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
18 April 1980 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 18 April (1980)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
21 December 1979
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
mixture of Roman-Dutch and English common law
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Co-Vice Presidents Simon Vengai MUZENDA (since 31 December 1987) and Joseph MSIKA (since 23 December 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Co-Vice Presidents Simon Vengai MUZENDA (since 31 December 1987) and Joseph MSIKA (since 23 December 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; responsible to the House of Assembly
elections: presidential candidates nominated with a nomination paper signed by at least 10 registered voters (at least one from each province) and elected by popular vote; election last held 9-11 March 2002 (next to be held NA March 2006); co-vice presidents appointed by the president
election results: Robert Gabriel MUGABE reelected president; percent of vote - Robert Gabriel MUGABE 56.2%, Morgan TSVANGIRAI 41.9%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral parliament, called House of Assembly (150 seats - 120 elected by popular vote for five-year terms, 12 nominated by the president, 10 occupied by traditional chiefs chosen by their peers, and 8 occupied by provincial governors appointed by the president)
elections: last held 24-25 June 2000 (next to be held NA 2005)
election results: percent of vote by party - ZANU-PF 47.2%, MDC 45.6%, ZANU-Ndonga 0.7%, United Parties 0.7%; seats by party - ZANU-PF 63, MDC 56, ZANU-Ndonga 1
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court; High Court
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Movement for Democratic Change or MDC [Morgan TSVANGIRAI]; United Parties [Abel MUZOREWA]; Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga or ZANU-Ndonga [leader NA]; Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front or ZANU-PF [Robert Gabriel MUGABE]; Zimbabwe African Peoples Union or ZAPU [Paul SIWELA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
National Constitutional Assembly or NCA [Lovemore MADHUKU]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Simbi Veke MUBAKO
FAX: [1] (202) 483-9326
telephone: [1] (202) 332-7100
chancery: 1608 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph G. SULLIVAN
embassy: 172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue, Harare
mailing address: P. O. Box 3340, Harare
telephone: [263] (4) 250-593 and 250-594
FAX: [263] (4) 796488
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red, yellow, and green with a white isosceles triangle edged in black with its base on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird is superimposed on a red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle
   Economy    Zimbabwe
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
The government of Zimbabwe faces a wide variety of difficult economic problems as it struggles to consolidate earlier moves to develop a market-oriented economy. Its involvement in the war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, for example, has already drained hundreds of millions of dollars from the economy. Badly needed support from the IMF has been suspended because of the country's failure to meet budgetary goals. Inflation rose from an annual rate of 32% in 1998 to 59% in 1999, to 60% in 2000, and to 100% by yearend 2001. The economy is being steadily weakened by excessive government deficits, AIDS, and rampant inflation. The government's land reform program, characterized by chaos and violence, has derailed the commercial sector, the traditional source of exports and foreign exchange and the provider of 400,000 jobs. Distribution of income is extremely unequal.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $28 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-6.5% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $2,450 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 11%
industry: 14%
services: 75% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
60% (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 46.9% (1990)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
56.8 (1990-91)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
100% (2001)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
5.5 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 66%, services 24%, industry 10% (1996 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
60% (2001 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $2.5 billion
expenditures: $2.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
mining (coal, gold, copper, nickel, tin, clay, numerous metallic and nonmetallic ores), steel, wood products, cement, chemicals, fertilizer, clothing and footwear, foodstuffs, beverages
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-10% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
6.425 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 53.31%
hydro: 46.69%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
10.475 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
4.5 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
corn, cotton, tobacco, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs
Exports:
Definition Field Listing
$2.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
tobacco 30%, gold 11%, ferroalloys 9%, textile/clothing 3% (2000)
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
South Africa 12.1%, UK 8.5%, Japan 7.7%, Germany 6.1%, China 5.4% (2000)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing
$1.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and transport equipment 34%, other manufactures 18%, chemicals 17%, fuels 11% (1999)
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
South Africa 46.3%, UK 7.2%, Germany 2.5%, US 2.8%, Japan 2.5% (2000 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$5 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$200 million (2000 est.)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Zimbabwean dollar (ZWD)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
ZWD
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Zimbabwean dollars per US dollar - 54.9451 (December 2001), 54.9451 (2001), 43.2900 (2000), 38.3142 (1999), 21.4133 (1998), 11.8906 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 January - 31 December
   Communications    Zimbabwe
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
212,000 (in addition, there are about 20,000 fixed telephones in wireless local loop connections) (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
111,000 (2001)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: system was once one of the best in Africa, but now suffers from poor maintenance; more than 100,000 outstanding requests for connection despite an equally large number of installed but unused main lines
domestic: consists of microwave radio relay links, open-wire lines, radiotelephone communication stations, fixed wireless local loop installations, and a substantial mobile cellular network; Internet connection is available in Harare and planned for all major towns and for some of the smaller ones
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat; two international digital gateway exchanges (in Harare and Gweru)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 7, FM 20 (plus 17 repeater stations), shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios:
Definition Field Listing
1.14 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
16 (1997)
Televisions:
Definition Field Listing
370,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.zw
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
6 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
30,000 (1999)
   Transportation    Zimbabwe
Railways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3,077 km
narrow gauge: 3,077 km 1.067-m gauge (313 km electrified; 42 km double-tracked)
note: includes the 318 km Bulawaya-Beitbridge Railway Company line (2001)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 18,338 km
paved: 8,692 km
unpaved: 9,646 km (2002)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
chrome ore is transported from Harare - by way of the Mazoe River - to the Zambezi River in Mozambique
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum products 212 km
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Binga, Kariba
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
454 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 17
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 8 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 437
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 209
under 914 m: 224 (2001)
   Military    Zimbabwe
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Zimbabwe National Army, Air Force of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe Republic Police (includes Police Support Unit, Paramilitary Police)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 3,057,381 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,898,383 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$350.6 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
3.8% (FY01)
   Transnational Issues    Zimbabwe
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transit point for African cannabis and South Asian heroin, mandrax, and methamphetamines destined for the South African and European markets

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002


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