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Map of Czech Republic
Introduction Czech Republic
Background:
After World War II, Czechoslovakia fell within the Soviet sphere of influence. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize party rule and create "socialism with a human face." Anti-Soviet demonstrations the following year ushered in a period of harsh repression. With the collapse of Soviet authority in 1989, Czechoslovakia regained its freedom through a peaceful "Velvet Revolution." On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a "velvet divorce" into its two national components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Now a member of NATO, the Czech Republic has moved toward integration in world markets, a development that poses both opportunities and risks.
Geography Czech Republic
Location:
Central Europe, southeast of Germany
Geographic coordinates:
49 45 N, 15 30 E
Map references:
Europe
Area:
total: 78,866 sq km
water: 1,590 sq km
land: 77,276 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundaries:
total: 1,881 km
border countries: Austria 362 km, Germany 646 km, Poland 658 km, Slovakia 215 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Climate:
temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Terrain:
Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Elbe River 115 m
highest point: Snezka 1,602 m
Natural resources:
hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite, timber
Land use:
arable land: 40%
permanent crops: 3%
other: 57% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
240 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
flooding
Environment - current issues:
air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol
Geography - note:
landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe
People Czech Republic
Population:
10,256,760 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 15.7% (male 828,273; female 786,617)
15-64 years: 70.3% (male 3,605,766; female 3,603,058)
65 years and over: 14% (male 551,852; female 881,194) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.07% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
9.08 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
10.76 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.96 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
5.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.95 years
female: 78.65 years (2002 est.)
male: 71.46 years
Total fertility rate:
1.18 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.04% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
2,200 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 100 (1999 est.)
Nationality:
noun: Czech(s)
adjective: Czech
Ethnic groups:
Czech 81.2%, Moravian 13.2%, Slovak 3.1%, Polish 0.6%, German 0.5%, Silesian 0.4%, Roma 0.3%, Hungarian 0.2%, other 0.5% (1991)
Religions:
atheist 39.8%, Roman Catholic 39.2%, Protestant 4.6%, Orthodox 3%, other 13.4%
Languages:
Czech
Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: 99.9% (1999 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%
Government Czech Republic
Country name:
conventional long form: Czech Republic
conventional short form: Czech Republic
local short form: Ceska Republika
local long form: Ceska Republika
Government type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Prague
Administrative divisions:
13 regions (kraje, singular - kraj) and 1 capital city* (hlavni mesto); Jihocesky Kraj, Jihomoravsky Kraj, Karlovarsky Kraj, Kralovehradecky Kraj, Liberecky Kraj, Moravskoslezsky Kraj, Olomoucky Kraj, Pardubicky Kraj, Plzensky Kraj, Praha*, Stredocesky Kraj, Ustecky Kraj, Vysocina, Zlinsky Kraj
Independence:
1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)
National holiday:
Czech Founding Day, 28 October (1918)
Constitution:
ratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993
Legal system:
civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring it in line with Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Vaclav HAVEL (since 2 February 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Milos ZEMAN (since 17 July 1998); Deputy Prime Ministers Vladimir SPIDLA (since 22 July 1998), Pavel RYCHETSKY (since 22 July 1998), Jan KAVAN (since 8 December 1999)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; election last held 20 January 1998 (next to be held NA January 2003); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Vaclav HAVEL reelected president; Vaclav HAVEL received 47 of 81 votes in the Senate and 99 out of 200 votes in the Chamber of Deputies (second round of voting)
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms; one-third elected every two years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Poslanecka Snemovna (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 12 and 19 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2002); Chamber of Deputies - last held 19-20 June 1998 (next to be held by NA June 2002)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - KDU-CSL 28, ODS 22, CSSD 15, ODA 7, US 4, KSCM 3, independents 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - CSSD 32.3%, ODS 27.7%, KSCM 11%, KDU-CSL 9.0%, US 8.6%; seats by party - CSSD 74, ODS 63, KSCM 24, KDU-CSL 20, US 18, CSNS 1
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; chairman and deputy chairmen are appointed by the president for a 10-year term
Political parties and leaders:
Christian and Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Cyril SVOBODA, chairman]; Civic Democratic Alliance or ODA [Michael ZANTOVSKY, chairman]; Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Vaclav KLAUS, chairman]; Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Miroslav GREBENICEK, chairman]; Communist Party of Czechoslovakia or KSC [Miroslav STEPAN, chairman]; Czech National Social Party of CSNS [Jan SULA, chairman]; Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Milos ZEMAN, chairman]; Democratic Union or DEU [Ratibor MAJZLIK, chairman]; Freedom Union or US [Hana MARVANOVA, chairman]; Quad Coalition [Karel KUHNL, chairman] (includes KDU-CSL, US, ODA, DEU); Republicans of Miroslav SLADEK or RMS [Miroslav SLADEK, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Czech-Moravian Confederation of Trade Unions [Richard FALBR]
International organization participation:
ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Martin PALOUS
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8540
telephone: [1] (202) 363-6315
chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Craig R. STAPLETON
embassy: Trziste 15, 118 #01 Prague 1
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [420] (2) 5753-0663
FAX: [420] (2) 5753-0583
Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia)
Economy Czech Republic
Economy - overview:
Basically one of the most stable and prosperous of the post-Communist states, the Czech Republic has been recovering from recession since mid-1999. Growth in 2000-01 was led by exports to the EU, especially Germany, and foreign investment, while domestic demand is reviving. Uncomfortably high fiscal and current account deficits could be future problems. Unemployment is gradually declining as job creation continues in the rebounding economy; inflation is up to 4.7% but still moderate. The EU put the Czech Republic just behind Poland and Hungary in preparations for accession, which will give further impetus and direction to structural reform. Moves to complete banking, telecommunications, and energy privatization will add to foreign investment, while intensified restructuring among large enterprises and banks and improvements in the financial sector should strengthen output growth.
GDP:
purchasing power parity - $147.9 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
3.4% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $14,400 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 5%
industry: 41%
services: 54% (2000)
Population below poverty line:
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4.3%
highest 10%: 22.4% (1996)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
26 (1996)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.7% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
5.203 million (1999 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 5%, industry 40%, services 55% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate:
8.5% (2001 est.)
Budget:
revenues: $16.7 billion
expenditures: $18 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Industries:
metallurgy, machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, glass, armaments
Industrial production growth rate:
7.2% (2001)
Electricity - production:
69.589 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 77.75%
hydro: 2.5%
other: 1.2% (2000)
nuclear: 18.55%
Electricity - consumption:
54.701 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
18.74 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
8.725 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, poultry
Exports:
$32.7 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Exports - commodities:
machinery and transport equipment 44%, intermediate manufactures 25%, chemicals 7%, raw materials and fuel 7% (2000)
Exports - partners:
Germany 40.4%, Slovakia 7.7%, Austria 6.0%, Poland 5.4%, UK 4.3% (2000)
Imports:
$37.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and transport equipment 40%, intermediate manufactures 21%, raw materials and fuels 13%, chemicals 11% (2000)
Imports - partners:
Germany 26.7%, Russia 6.4%, Slovakia 6.0%, Italy 5.2%, Austria 4.9% (2000)
Debt - external:
$24.6 billion (2001)
Economic aid - recipient:
$NA
Currency:
Czech koruna (CZK)
Currency code:
CZK
Exchange rates:
koruny per US dollar - 36.325 (January 2002), 38.035 (2001), 38.598 (2000), 34.569 (1999), 32.281 (1998), 31.698 (1997)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Czech Republic
Telephones - main lines in use:
3.869 million (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
4.346 million (2000)
Telephone system:
general assessment: privatization and modernization of the Czech telecommunication system got a late start but is advancing steadily; growth in the use of mobile cellular telephones is particularly vigorous
domestic: 86% of exchanges now digital; existing copper subscriber systems now being enhanced with Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) equipment to accommodate Internet and other digital signals; trunk systems include fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 31, FM 304, shortwave 17 (2000)
Radios:
3,159,134 (December 2000)
Television broadcast stations:
150 (plus 1,434 repeaters) (2000)
Televisions:
3,405,834 (December 2000)
Internet country code:
.cz
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
more than 300 (2000)
Internet users:
1.1 million (2001)
Transportation Czech Republic
Railways:
total: 9,444 km
standard gauge: 9,350 km 1.435-m gauge (2,843 km electrified; 1,929 km double-track)
narrow gauge: 94 km 0.760-m gauge (2000 est.)
Highways:
total: 55,432 km
paved: 55,432 km (including 499 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (2000)
Waterways:
303 km
note: (the Labe (Elbe) is the principal river) (2000)
Pipelines:
natural gas 3,550 km (2000)
Ports and harbors:
Decin, Prague, Usti nad Labem
Airports:
121 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 44
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 17 (2001)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 77
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 28
under 914 m: 48 (2001)
Heliports:
1 (2001)
Military Czech Republic
Military branches:
Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Territorial Defense Force
Military manpower - military age:
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,637,128 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 2,012,779 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 69,393 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$1,190,200,000 (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
2.1% (FY01)
Transnational Issues Czech Republic
Disputes - international:
Liechtenstein's royal family claims restitution for 1,600 sq km of land in the Czech Republic confiscated in 1918; individual Sudeten German claims for restitution of property confiscated in connection with their expulsion after World War II; Austria has minor dispute with Czech Republic over the Temelin nuclear power plant and post-World War II treatment of German-speaking minorities
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and minor transit point for Latin American cocaine to Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for local and regional markets

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002





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