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Map of Hungary
Introduction Hungary
Background:
Hungary was part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. In the more open GORBACHEV years, Hungary led the movement to dissolve the Warsaw Pact and steadily shifted toward multiparty democracy and a market-oriented economy. Following the collapse of the USSR in 1991, Hungary developed close political and economic ties to Western Europe. It joined NATO in 1999 and is a frontrunner in a future expansion of the EU.
Geography Hungary
Location:
Central Europe, northwest of Romania
Geographic coordinates:
47 00 N, 20 00 E
Map references:
Europe
Area:
total: 93,030 sq km
water: 690 sq km
land: 92,340 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries:
total: 2,171 km
border countries: Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km, Yugoslavia 151 km, Slovakia 677 km, Slovenia 102 km, Ukraine 103 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Climate:
temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
Terrain:
mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Tisza River 78 m
highest point: Kekes 1,014 m
Natural resources:
bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land
Land use:
arable land: 52%
other: 45% (1998 est.)
permanent crops: 3%
Irrigated land:
2,100 sq km (1998 est.)
Environment - current issues:
the approximation of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution with environmental requirements for EU accession will require large investments
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin
People Hungary
Population:
10,075,034 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 16.4% (male 847,081; female 802,340)
15-64 years: 68.8% (male 3,406,701; female 3,528,087)
65 years and over: 14.8% (male 544,956; female 945,869) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.3% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
9.34 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
13.09 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.58 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
8.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.9 years
female: 76.55 years (2002 est.)
male: 67.55 years
Total fertility rate:
1.25 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.05% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
2,500 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 100 (1999 est.)
Nationality:
noun: Hungarian(s)
adjective: Hungarian
Ethnic groups:
Hungarian 89.9%, Roma 4%, German 2.6%, Serb 2%, Slovak 0.8%, Romanian 0.7%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20%, Lutheran 5%, atheist and other 7.5%
Languages:
Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 98% (1980 est.)
Government Hungary
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Hungary
conventional short form: Hungary
local short form: Magyarorszag
local long form: Magyar Koztarsasag
Government type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Budapest
Administrative divisions:
19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 20 urban counties* (singular - megyei varos), and 1 capital city** (fovaros); Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Bekescsaba*, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Budapest**, Csongrad, Debrecen*, Dunaujvaros*, Eger*, Fejer, Gyor*, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Hodmezovasarhely*, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Kaposvar*, Kecskemet*, Komarom-Esztergom, Miskolc*, Nagykanizsa*, Nograd, Nyiregyhaza*, Pecs*, Pest, Somogy, Sopron*, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Szeged*, Szekesfehervar*, Szolnok*, Szombathely*, Tatabanya*, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Veszprem*, Zala, Zalaegerszeg*
Independence:
1001 (unification by King Stephen I)
National holiday:
St. Stephen's Day, 20 August
Constitution:
18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight; 1997 amendment streamlined the judicial system
Legal system:
rule of law based on Western model
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: Ferenc MADL (since NA August 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Peter MEDGYESSY (since 27 May 2002)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 6 June 2000 (next to be held by June 2005); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president
note: to be elected, the president must win two-thirds of legislative vote in the first two rounds or a simple majority in the third round
election results: Ferenc MADL elected president; percent of legislative vote - NA% (but by a simple majority in the third round of voting); Peter MEDGYESSY elected prime minister; percent of legislative vote - NA%
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (386 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a system of proportional and direct representation to serve four-year terms)
election results: percent of vote by party (5% or more of the vote required for parliamentary representation in the first round) - FIDESZ/MDF 48.70%, MSZP 46.11%, SZDSZ 4.92%, other 0.27%; seats by party - FIDESZ/MDF 188, MSZP 178, SZDSZ 20
elections: last held 7 and 21 April 2002 (next to be held NA April 2006)
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly for nine-year terms)
Political parties and leaders:
Alliance of Free Democrats or SZDSZ [Gabor KUNCZE]; Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Gyorgy GICZY, president]; Hungarian Civic Party or FIDESZ [Zoltan POKORNI]; Hungarian Democratic Forum or MDF [Ibolya DAVID]; Hungarian Democratic People's Party or MDNP [Erzsebet PUSZTAI, chairman]; Hungarian Justice and Life Party or MIEP [Istvan CSURKA, chairman]; Hungarian Socialist Party or MSZP [Laszlo KOVACS, chairman]; Hungarian Workers' Party or MMP [Gyula THURMER, chairman]; Independent Smallholders or FKGP [Jozsef TORGYAN, president]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA
International organization participation:
ABEDA, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNOMIG, UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Geza JESZENSZKY
chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135
telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Nancy Goodman BRINKER
embassy: Szabadsag ter 12, H-1054 Budapest
mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Budapest, 5270 Budapest Place, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270
telephone: [36] (1) 475-4336, 475-4156
FAX: [36] (1) 475-4520
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green
Economy Hungary
Economy - overview:
Hungary continues to demonstrate strong economic growth and to work toward accession to the European Union. The private sector accounts for over 80% of GDP. Foreign ownership of and investment in Hungarian firms is widespread, with cumulative foreign direct investment totaling more than $23 billion since 1989. Hungarian sovereign debt was upgraded in 2000 to the second-highest rating among all the Central European transition economies. Inflation and unemployment - both priority concerns in 2001 - have declined substantially. Economic reform measures such as health care reform, tax reform, and local government financing have not yet been addressed by the ORBAN government.
GDP:
purchasing power parity - $120.9 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
3.9% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $12,000 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 6%
industry: 34%
services: 60% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
8.6% (1993 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 20.5% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
25.3 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9.2% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
4.2 million (1997)
Labor force - by occupation:
services 65%, industry 27%, agriculture 8% (1996)
Unemployment rate:
6.5% (2001 est.)
Budget:
revenues: $13 billion
expenditures: $14.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Industries:
mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles
Industrial production growth rate:
4.7% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production:
33.436 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 58.83%
hydro: 0.53%
other: 0.35% (2000)
nuclear: 40.29%
Electricity - consumption:
35.095 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
1.2 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
5.2 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
wheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products
Exports:
$27.9 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
Exports - commodities:
machinery and equipment 59.5%, other manufactures 29.4%, food products 6.9%, raw materials 2.4%, fuels and electricity 1.8% (2000)
Exports - partners:
Germany 37%, Austria 9%, Italy 6%, Netherlands 5% (2000)
Imports:
$29.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment 51.1%, other manufactures 35.9%, fuels and electricity 8.1%, food products 2.8%, raw materials 2.1% (2000)
Imports - partners:
Germany 25%, Russia 8%, Austria 7%, Italy 7% (2000)
Debt - external:
$28.5 billion (2001)
Economic aid - recipient:
$122.7 million (1995)
Currency:
forint (HUF)
Currency code:
HUF
Exchange rates:
forints per US dollar - 275.920 (January 2002), 286.490 (2001), 282.179 (2000), 237.146 (1999), 214.402 (1998), 186.789 (1997)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Hungary
Telephones - main lines in use:
3.095 million (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
1.269 million (July 1999)
Telephone system:
general assessment: the telephone system has been modernized and is capable of satisfying all requests for telecommunication service
domestic: the system is digitalized and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay; a program for fiber-optic subscriber connections was initiated in 1996; heavy use is made of mobile cellular telephones
international: Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 17, FM 57, shortwave 3 (1998)
Radios:
7.01 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
35 (plus 161 low-power repeaters) (1995)
Televisions:
4.42 million (1997)
Internet country code:
.hu
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
16 (2000)
Internet users:
1.2 million (2001)
Transportation Hungary
Railways:
total: 7,869 km
broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge
narrow gauge: 219 km 0.760-m gauge
standard gauge: 7,614 km 1.435-m gauge (2,423 km electrified; 1,236 km double-tracked)
note: Hungary and Austria jointly manage the cross-border, standard-gauge railway connecting Gyor, Sopron, and Ebenfurt (Gysev railroad) which has a route length of about 101 km in Hungary and 65 km in Austria (2001)
Highways:
total: 188,203 km
paved: 81,680 km (including 448 km of expressways)
unpaved: 106,523 km (1998 est.)
Waterways:
1,373 km (permanently navigable) (1997)
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,204 km; natural gas 4,387 km (1991)
Ports and harbors:
Budapest, Dunaujvaros
Airports:
43 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 16
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2001)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 27
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
under 914 m: 8 (2001)
914 to 1,523 m: 12
Heliports:
5 (2001)
Military Hungary
Military branches:
Ground Forces, Air Forces
Military manpower - military age:
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,559,260 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 2,039,710 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 64,121 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$1.08 billion (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
1.75% (2002 est.)
Transnational Issues Hungary
Disputes - international:
Slovakia requested additional ICJ judgment in 1998 and talks continue to set modalities to assure Hungarian compliance with 1997 ICJ decision to proceed with construction of Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Dam, abandoned by Hungary in 1989; Hungary opposes Croatian plan to build a hydropower dam on the boundary stream Drava
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamine and methamphetamine

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002





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