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Map of Qatar
Introduction Qatar
Background:
Ruled by the Al Thani family since the mid-1800s, Qatar transformed itself from a poor British protectorate noted mainly for pearling into an independent state with significant oil and natural gas revenues. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Qatari economy was crippled by a continuous siphoning off of petroleum revenues by the amir who had ruled the country since 1972. He was overthrown by his son, the current Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani, in a bloodless coup in 1995. In 2001, Qatar resolved its longstanding border disputes with both Bahrain and Saudi Arabia. Oil and natural gas revenues enable Qatar to have a per capita income not far below the leading industrial countries of Western Europe.
Geography Qatar
Location:
Middle East, peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia
Geographic coordinates:
25 30 N, 51 15 E
Map references:
Middle East
Area:
total: 11,437 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 11,437 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
total: 60 km
border countries: Saudi Arabia 60 km
Coastline:
563 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 NM
exclusive economic zone: as determined by bilateral agreements or the median line
territorial sea: 12 NM
Climate:
arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Terrain:
mostly flat and barren desert covered with loose sand and gravel
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: Qurayn Abu al Bawl 103 m
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, fish
Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 99% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
130 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
haze, dust storms, sandstorms common
Environment - current issues:
limited natural fresh water resources are increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
strategic location in central Persian Gulf near major petroleum deposits
People Qatar
Population:
793,341 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 25.2% (male 102,110; female 98,053)
15-64 years: 72.1% (male 403,508; female 168,428)
65 years and over: 2.7% (male 15,299; female 5,943) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.02% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
15.78 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
4.34 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
18.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 2.4 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 2.57 male(s)/female
total population: 1.91 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
20.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.88 years
female: 75.48 years (2002 est.)
male: 70.4 years
Total fertility rate:
3.1 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.09% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA
Nationality:
noun: Qatari(s)
adjective: Qatari
Ethnic groups:
Arab 40%, Pakistani 18%, Indian 18%, Iranian 10%, other 14%
Religions:
Muslim 95%
Languages:
Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second language
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 79%
male: 79%
female: 80% (1995 est.)
Government Qatar
Country name:
conventional long form: State of Qatar
conventional short form: Qatar
local short form: Qatar
note: closest approximation of the native pronunciation falls between cutter and gutter, but not like guitar
local long form: Dawlat Qatar
Government type:
traditional monarchy
Capital:
Doha
Administrative divisions:
9 municipalities (baladiyat, singular - baladiyah); Ad Dawhah, Al Ghuwayriyah, Al Jumayliyah, Al Khawr, Al Wakrah, Ar Rayyan, Jarayan al Batinah, Madinat ash Shamal, Umm Salal
Independence:
3 September 1971 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 3 September (1971)
Constitution:
provisional constitution enacted 19 April 1972; in July 1999 Amir HAMAD issued a decree forming a committee to draft a permanent constitution
Legal system:
discretionary system of law controlled by the amir, although civil codes are being implemented; Islamic law dominates family and personal matters
Suffrage:
suffrage is limited to municipal elections
Executive branch:
chief of state: Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani (since 27 June 1995 when, as crown prince, he ousted his father, Amir KHALIFA bin Hamad Al Thani, in a bloodless coup); Crown Prince JASSIM bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, third son of the monarch (selected crown prince by the monarch 22 October 1996); note - Amir HAMAD also holds the positions of minister of defense and commander-in-chief of the armed forces
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary
head of government: Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Khalifa Al Thani, brother of the monarch (since 30 October 1996); Deputy Prime Minister MUHAMMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani, brother of the monarch (since 20 January 1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch
note: in March 1999, Qatar held nationwide elections for a 29-member Central Municipal Council, which has consultative powers aimed at improving the provision of municipal services
Legislative branch:
unicameral Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura (35 seats; members appointed)
note: the constitution calls for elections for part of this consultative body, but no elections have been held since 1970, when there were partial elections to the body; Council members have had their terms extended every four years since
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal
Political parties and leaders:
none
Political pressure groups and leaders:
none
International organization participation:
ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDB, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Badr Umar al-DAFA
chancery: 4200 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
consulate(s) general: Houston
FAX: [1] (202) 237-0061
telephone: [1] (202) 274-1600
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Maureen E. QUINN (since September 2001)
embassy: Al-Luqtas District, 22 February Road, Doha
mailing address: P. O. Box 2399, Doha
telephone: [974] 488 4101
FAX: [974] 486 1669
note: workweek is Saturday-Wednesday
Flag description:
maroon with a broad white serrated band (nine white points) on the hoist side
Economy Qatar
Economy - overview:
Oil accounts for more than 30% of GDP, roughly 80% of export earnings, and 58% of government revenues. Proved oil reserves of 3.7 billion barrels should ensure continued output at current levels for 23 years. Oil has given Qatar a per capita GDP comparable to that of the leading West European industrial countries. Qatar's proved reserves of natural gas exceed 7 trillion cubic meters, more than 5% of the world total, third largest in the world. Production and export of natural gas are becoming increasingly important. Long-term goals feature the development of offshore natural gas reserves. In 2000, Qatar posted its highest ever trade surplus of $7 billion, due mainly to high oil prices and increased natural gas exports, and managed to maintain the surplus in 2001.
GDP:
purchasing power parity - $16.3 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
5.6% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $21,200 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1%
industry: 49%
services: 50% (1996 est.)
Population below poverty line:
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2% (2001)
Labor force:
280,122 (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate:
2.7% (2001)
Budget:
revenues: $5 billion
expenditures: $4.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $900 million (FY01/02 est.)
Industries:
crude oil production and refining, fertilizers, petrochemicals, steel reinforcing bars, cement
Industrial production growth rate:
NA%
Electricity - production:
9.2 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
8.556 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
fruits, vegetables; poultry, dairy products, beef; fish
Exports:
$11 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
petroleum products 80%, fertilizers, steel
Exports - partners:
Japan 43%, Singapore 8%, South Korea 6%, US 4%, UAE 2% (1999)
Imports:
$3.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, food, chemicals
Imports - partners:
UK 10%, Japan 8%, Germany 6%, Italy 6%, US 6% (1998)
Debt - external:
$13.1 billion (2000 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$NA
Currency:
Qatari rial (QAR)
Currency code:
QAR
Exchange rates:
Qatari rials per US dollar - 3.6400 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March
Communications Qatar
Telephones - main lines in use:
142,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
43,476 (1997)
Telephone system:
general assessment: modern system centered in Doha
domestic: NA
international: tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and UAE; submarine cable to Bahrain and UAE; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 6, FM 5, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios:
256,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
1 (plus three repeaters) (2001)
Televisions:
230,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
.qa
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
1 (2000)
Internet users:
75,000 (2001)
Transportation Qatar
Railways:
0 km
Highways:
total: 1,230 km
paved: 1,107 km
unpaved: 123 km (1996)
Waterways:
none
Pipelines:
crude oil 235 km; natural gas 400 km
Ports and harbors:
Doha, Halul Island, Umm Sa'id (Musay'id)
Merchant marine:
total: 25 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 679,081 GRT/1,051,088 DWT
ships by type: cargo 10, combination ore/oil 2, container 7, petroleum tanker 6
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Kuwait 1, United Arab Emirates 3 (2002 est.)
Airports:
4 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
over 3,047 m: 2 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2001)
914 to 1,523 m: 1
Heliports:
1 (2001)
Military Qatar
Military branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force
Military manpower - military age:
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 316,885
note: includes non-nationals (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 166,214 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 6,797 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$723 million (FY00/01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
10% (FY00/01)
Transnational Issues Qatar
Disputes - international:
none

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002





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