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Map of Slovenia
Introduction Slovenia
Background:
The Slovene lands were part of the Holy Roman Empire and Austria until 1918 when the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new nation, renamed Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II, Slovenia became a republic of the renewed Yugoslavia, which though Communist, distanced itself from Moscow's rule. Dissatisfied with the exercise of power of the majority Serbs, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991. Historical ties to Western Europe, a strong economy, and a stable democracy make Slovenia a leading candidate for future membership in the EU and NATO.
Geography Slovenia
Location:
Central Europe, eastern Alps bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Austria and Croatia
Geographic coordinates:
46 07 N, 14 49 E
Map references:
Europe
Area:
total: 20,273 sq km
water: 122 sq km
land: 20,151 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
total: 1,334 km
border countries: Austria 330 km, Croatia 670 km, Italy 232 km, Hungary 102 km
Coastline:
46.6 km
Maritime claims:
NA
Climate:
Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east
Terrain:
a short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain region adjacent to Italy and Austria, mixed mountain and valleys with numerous rivers to the east
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Triglav 2,864 m
Natural resources:
lignite coal, lead, zinc, mercury, uranium, silver, hydropower, forests
Land use:
arable land: 11%
permanent crops: 3%
other: 86% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
20 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
flooding and earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
Sava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; pollution of coastal waters with heavy metals and toxic chemicals; forest damage near Koper from air pollution (originating at metallurgical and chemical plants) and resulting acid rain
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note:
despite its small size, this eastern Alpine country controls some of Europe's major transit routes
People Slovenia
Population:
1,932,917 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 15.7% (male 155,989; female 147,707)
15-64 years: 69.8% (male 684,354; female 663,884)
65 years and over: 14.5% (male 103,790; female 177,193) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.14% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
9.27 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
10.07 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
2.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
4.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.29 years
female: 79.37 years (2002 est.)
male: 71.42 years
Total fertility rate:
1.28 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.02% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
200 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 100 (1999 est.)
Nationality:
noun: Slovene(s)
adjective: Slovenian
Ethnic groups:
Slovene 88%, Croat 3%, Serb 2%, Bosniak 1%, Yugoslav 0.6%, Hungarian 0.4%, other 5% (1991)
Religions:
Roman Catholic (Uniate 2%) 70.8%, Lutheran 1%, Muslim 1%, atheist 4.3%, other 22.9%
Languages:
Slovenian 91%, Serbo-Croatian 6%, other 3%
Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: 99%
male: NA%
female: NA%
Government Slovenia
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia
conventional short form: Slovenia
local short form: Slovenija
local long form: Republika Slovenija
Government type:
parliamentary democratic republic
Capital:
Ljubljana
Administrative divisions:
136 municipalities (obcine, singular - obcina) and 11 urban municipalities* (mestne obcine , singular - mestna obcina ) Ajdovscina, Beltinci, Bled, Bohinj, Borovnica, Bovec, Brda, Brezice, Brezovica, Cankova-Tisina, Celje*, Cerklje na Gorenjskem, Cerknica, Cerkno, Crensovci, Crna na Koroskem, Crnomelj, Destrnik-Trnovska Vas, Divaca, Dobrepolje, Dobrova-Horjul-Polhov Gradec, Dol pri Ljubljani, Domzale, Dornava, Dravograd, Duplek, Gorenja Vas-Poljane, Gorisnica, Gornja Radgona, Gornji Grad, Gornji Petrovci, Grosuplje, Hodos Salovci, Hrastnik, Hrpelje-Kozina, Idrija, Ig, Ilirska Bistrica, Ivancna Gorica, Izola, Jesenice, Jursinci, Kamnik, Kanal, Kidricevo, Kobarid, Kobilje, Kocevje, Komen, Koper*, Kozje, Kranj*, Kranjska Gora, Krsko, Kungota, Kuzma, Lasko, Lenart, Lendava, Litija, Ljubljana*, Ljubno, Ljutomer, Logatec, Loska Dolina, Loski Potok, Luce, Lukovica, Majsperk, Maribor*, Medvode, Menges, Metlika, Mezica, Miren-Kostanjevica, Mislinja, Moravce, Moravske Toplice, Mozirje, Murska Sobota*, Muta, Naklo, Nazarje, Nova Gorica*, Novo Mesto*, Odranci, Ormoz, Osilnica, Pesnica, Piran, Pivka, Podcetrtek, Podvelka-Ribnica, Postojna, Preddvor, Ptuj*, Puconci, Race-Fram, Radece, Radenci, Radlje ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne-Prevalje, Ribnica, Rogasevci, Rogaska Slatina, Rogatec, Ruse, Semic, Sencur, Sentilj, Sentjernej, Sentjur pri Celju, Sevnica, Sezana, Skocjan, Skofja Loka, Skofljica, Slovenj Gradec*, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Smarje pri Jelsah, Smartno ob Paki, Sostanj, Starse, Store, Sveti Jurij, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trzic, Turnisce, Velenje*, Velike Lasce, Videm, Vipava, Vitanje, Vodice, Vojnik, Vrhnika, Vuzenica, Zagorje ob Savi, Zalec, Zavrc, Zelezniki, Ziri, Zrece
note: there may be 45 more municipalities
Independence:
25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday:
Independence Day/Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)
Constitution:
adopted 23 December 1991, effective 23 December 1991
Legal system:
based on civil law system
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Milan KUCAN (since 22 April 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Janez DRNOVSEK (since 15 October 2000)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly
election results: Milan KUCAN elected president; percent of vote - Milan KUCAN 56.3%, Janez PODOBNIK 18%; Janez DRNOVSEK elected prime minister; percent of National Assembly vote - NA%
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 24 November 1997 (next to be held in the fall of 2002); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually nominated to become prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly; election last held 15 October 2000 (next to be held NA October 2004)
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90 seats, 40 are directly elected and 50 are selected on a proportional basis; note - the numbers of directly elected and proportionally elected seats varies with each election; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
election results: percent of vote by party - LDS 36%, SDS 16%, ZLSD 12%, SLS/SKD 10%, NSi 9%, SMS 4%, SNS 4%, DeSUS 5%, other 4%; seats by party - LDS 34, SDS 14, ZLDS 11, SLS/SKD 9, NSi 8, SMS 4, SNS 4, DeSUS 4, other 2
note: the National Council or Drzavni Svet is an advisory body with limited legislative powers; it may propose laws and ask to review any National Assembly decisions; in the election of November 1997, 40 members were elected to represent local, professional, and socioeconomic interests (next election to be held in the fall of 2002)
elections: National Assembly - last held 15 October 2000 (next to be held NA October 2004)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the Judicial Council); Constitutional Court (judges elected for nine-year terms by the National Assembly and nominated by the president)
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party of Retired (Persons) of Slovenia or DeSUS [Janko KUSAR]; Liberal Democratic or LDS [Janez DRNOVSEK, chairman]; New Slovenia or NSi [Andrej BAJUK, chairman]; Slovene National Party or SNS [Zmago JELINCIC, chairman]; Slovene People's Party or SLS (Slovenian People's Party or SLS and Slovenian Christian Democrats or SKD merged in April 2000) [Franc ZAGOZEN, chairman]; Slovene Youth Party or SMS [Peter LEVIC]; Social Democratic Party of Slovenia or SDS [Janez JANSA, chairman]; United List of Social Democrats (former Communists and allies) or ZLSD [Borut PAHOR, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA
International organization participation:
ABEDA, ACCT (observer), BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NSG, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Davorin KRACUN
FAX: [1] (202) 667-4563
consulate(s) general: New York and Cleveland
telephone: [1] (202) 667-5363
chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Johnny YOUNG
embassy: Presernova 31, SI-1000 Ljubljana
mailing address: P. O. Box 254, Presernova 31, 1000 Ljubljana; American Embassy Ljubljana, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7140
telephone: [386] (1) 200-5500
FAX: [386] (1) 200-5555
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red, with the Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav, Slovenia's highest peak, in white against a blue background at the center; beneath it are two wavy blue lines depicting seas and rivers, and above it are three six-pointed stars arranged in an inverted triangle which are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts of Celje, the great Slovene dynastic house of the late 14th and early 15th centuries); the seal is located in the upper hoist side of the flag centered in the white and blue bands
Economy Slovenia
Economy - overview:
Although Slovenia enjoys a GDP per capita substantially higher than that of the other transitioning economies of Central Europe, it needs to speed up the privatization process and the dismantling of restrictions on foreign investment. About 45% of the economy remains in state hands, and the level of foreign direct investment inflows as a percent of GDP is the lowest in the region. Despite the global slowdown in 2001, the economy turned in an excellent record on exports, which grew 5%. Inflation dropped slightly but at 8.4% remains a matter of concern.
GDP:
purchasing power parity - $31 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $16,000 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 35%
services: 61% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.9%
highest 10%: 23% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
28.4 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8.4% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
857,400
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Unemployment rate:
11.5% (2001 est.)
Budget:
revenues: $8.11 billion
expenditures: $8.32 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)
Industries:
ferrous metallurgy and rolling mill products, aluminum reduction and rolled products, lead and zinc smelting, electronics (including military electronics), trucks, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools
Industrial production growth rate:
3.3% (2001)
Electricity - production:
12.816 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 34.93%
hydro: 29.42%
other: 0.23% (2000)
nuclear: 35.42%
Electricity - consumption:
10.619 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
2 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
700 million kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
potatoes, hops, wheat, sugar beets, corn, grapes; cattle, sheep, poultry
Exports:
$9.2 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
Exports - commodities:
manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food
Exports - partners:
Germany 27.2%, Italy 13.6%, Croatia 7.9%, Austria 7.5%, France 7.1% (2000)
Imports:
$9.9 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, food
Imports - partners:
Germany 19.0%, Italy 17.4%, France 10.3%, Austria 8.2%, Croatia 4.4%, Hungary, Russia (2000)
Debt - external:
$6.6 billion (2001)
Economic aid - recipient:
ODA, $5 million (1993)
Currency:
tolar (SIT)
Currency code:
SIT
Exchange rates:
tolars per US dollar - 251.40 (January 2002), 242.75 (2001), 222.66 (2000), 181.77 (1999), 166.13 (1998), 159.69 (1997)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Slovenia
Telephones - main lines in use:
722,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
1 million (2000)
Telephone system:
general assessment: NA
domestic: 100% digital (2000)
international: NA
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 17, FM 160, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios:
805,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
48 (2001)
Televisions:
710,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
.si
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
11 (2000)
Internet users:
600,000 (2001)
Transportation Slovenia
Railways:
total: 1,201 km
standard gauge: 1,201 km 1.435-m gauge (489 km electrified) (2001)
Highways:
total: 19,586 km
paved: 17,745 km (including 249 km of expressways)
unpaved: 1,841 km (1998 est.)
Waterways:
NA
Pipelines:
crude oil 290 km; natural gas 305 km
Ports and harbors:
Izola, Koper, Piran
Airports:
14 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 4 (2001)
Military Slovenia
Military branches:
Slovenian Army (includes Air and Naval Forces)
Military manpower - military age:
19 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 521,881 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 414,878 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 14,513 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$370 million (FY00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
1.7% (FY00)
Transnational Issues Slovenia
Disputes - international:
Slovenia and Croatia have not obtained parliamentary ratification of 2001 land and marine boundary treaty, which cedes villages on the Dragonja River and Sveta Gera (Trdinov Peak) to Croatia, and most of Pirin Bay to Slovenia but restricts Slovenian access to the open sea; Austria has minor dispute with Slovenia over nuclear power plants and post-World War II treatment of German-speaking minorities
Illicit drugs:
minor transit point for cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe, and for precursor chemicals

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002





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